Xenotransplantation such as the better quality of the

Xenotransplantation is an
alternative to reduce the dependency on black market organs. The organ demand
has far exceeded the organs available. Patients are queueing on the wait list
for an organ transplant. The increasing organ demand globally while the number
of organ donor remain constant has led to organ scarcity. Such phenomenon had
forced desperate people to opt for illegal organs from the black market and
hence enables the illegal organ trade to thrive. Organs that are commonly
needed in transplantation are corneas, kidneys, liver, lung, intestines and
bone marrow. Black market has provided a range of organs for patients to be
transplanted in the shortest time. Opting for illegal organs, patients will not
have to wait long for organ transplant that may take up most of their precious
time as queuing for organ transplant in a legal way may take up an average of 3
to 5 years or more. Alas, some patients died and had no opportunity of having
an organ transplant.

           Moreover, black market organs are also harvested from
victims of human trafficking. Human trafficking, an enormous crime network has
involved a 20.9 million innocent people around the world. Each year, men, women
and children often fall into the hands of human trafficker domestically and
internationally. These victims are not only exploited for free labour, as
prostitutes but also for the purpose of organ harvesting. Human traffickers or
illegal brokers usually entice and ensnare the impoverished to donating their
valuable organs through the promise of financial gain, a stable job and a
better future. For instance, human traffickers and illegal brokers would aim at
rural countries with little to no enforcement of law transplant to recruit,
harbour, obtain and exploit the vulnerable. Traffickers and brokers would
usually offer the unemployed an opportunity to work in other countries but with
one condition: to donate their kidney. The unemployed had no choice but to
accept this offer.  Moreover, there are
also brokers or trafficker that impose as doctor, tricking the victims to
undergo a kidney surgery in exchange for a few thousand dollars. To persuade them
into donating their organs, the brokers or traffickers would come out with
various excuses such as the better quality of the surgery and its side effects,
the efficiency and quickness of it and a faster recovery rate for the patients.
Once they had accepted their job offer or agreed to undergo the surgery, the
perpetrators would bring them to hospitals to have their organs removed.
However, at the end of the day, these victims; the uneducated, poor, oppressed,
mentally disabled and vulnerable did not get as what they had promised. Most of
the victims that accepted the job offer did not get their job whereas those who
agreed to undergo the surgery was only paid a partial of the actual amount that
was discussed before and some of them was not paid at all. In short, they are
being exploited. Such crime is inhumane as it concerns with the violation of
human dignity and liberty. The perpetrators treat a person’s body as a
depository of replaceable machinery parts. They see the person as an object,
whose sole purpose is to bear organs that may be harvested and sold. It is a
huge shame and humiliation to the victims with their organs being harvested and
did not get as what they deserved. In worst case scenario, some of the victims
had their freedom taken away from the brokers or traffickers. The perpetrators
would employ various control tactics including physical and emotional abuse,
sexual assault, confiscation of identification and money, isolation from
friends and family, and even renaming victims. The victims also faced critical health
issues and some of them was on the verge of dying due to the side effects of
having their organs removed and obtain no proper medical attention.

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            Since it was the poor who sell or donated their organs,
it will be the wealthy that purchase the organs. The rich, unable to obtain
organs at their home country, travel to other countries where they can buy
organs and have it transplanted. The illegal organs in black market and illegal
transplant was double the cost of legal organs and transplant. Despite the
exorbitant price, people still depend on black market organs.  This is because they see this as an
opportunity to bypass the average 3-5 years on waiting list. Choosing the legal
way would mean the chance of having transplantation is minute and having to
queue for several years on wait list is not the best option for the desperate
people. In addition, people choose to depend on black market organs and illegal
transplantation is because the costs of illegal organ and transplant are worthy
than the total cost of years of dialysis with medical bills and legal

            To decrease the dependency on black market organs,
xenotransplantation is the best alternative without saying. Using primates’
organs in xenotransplantation creates an availability of organs to readily
harvested for transplantation. Primates’ organs are easily breed and grown in
vitro with its size and function that are highly similar to humans makes it the
best choice in xenotransplantation. There are also a variety of primate species
to be chosen for organs to be grown in vitro and produced in mass quantities. With
the qualities mentioned above, it indicates the organs will be always readily
available for transplantation. This can save millions of lives; the lives of
patients who might not be able to wait long for an organ transplant and the
lives of vulnerable people whose health is at critical condition and were left
to die after their organs harvested by illegal organ brokers and human