Wheat books and research paper.so, detail information is

Wheat spikes have attacked by different fungal diseases out of which only Scab, Pyricularia blast, Smuts, Bunts, and Ergot are explaining below. Other fungus diseases are deal with under a different research papers so they may be attack leaves and seeds of plants. Smut and bunt diseases are sometimes known as “Smuts”. There are two type of smut diseases one loose smut and other the ?ag smut. The Loose smut are common occurrence wherever wheat is cultivated whereas Flag smut occurs in restricted areas. As regards bunts are of three type called Common bunt, Dwarf bunt and Karnal bunt. All bunt diseases have been eradicated from few countries including Brazil due to an obligatory acts of seed treatment with mercury fungicides based. After Common bunt and the Dwarf bunt can be eradicated the mandatory seed treatment law was published in the 1960s and since then their occurrence did not been reported from Brazil. The bunts are still important in few other countries. Detail information especially on smuts and bunts is show by several workers (Heald and Holton 1940; Fischer and Holton 1957; Western 1971; Wilcoxon and Saari  1996 ; Bockus et al.  2010).

 Bunts

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There are three type of bunts called common bunt, dwarf bunt and Karnal bunt. All bunt diseases have been eradicated from several countries including Brazil, due to an obligatory acts of seed treatment with mercury fungicides based. After the common bunt and the dwarf bunt have been eradicated the compulsory seed treatment law was published in the 1960s and since then their occurrence did not been reported. The bunts are still important in few other countries. A short explanation of all these diseases is presented in different books and research paper.so, detail information is explain by Wilcox son and Saari (1996) about all bunt and smut diseases

Karnal Bunt

 This bunt is also known as partial bunt. It was ?rst described on wheat from Karnal district in north India (Mitra 1931; Bedi et al.  1949 ). After that the disease appeared on immense scale in 1996, 1978–1979, 1981–1983 and 1986, in different area of India as well as Pakistan (Joshi et al.  1983;  Agarwal  1986;  Singh and Dhaliwal  1989 ). In Mexico the disease was occurred in 1982 and 1983 and later in severe proportions in the Valle de Yaqui (Warham  1986) . A good revision of litera ture was explain by Joshi et al. (Joshi et al.  1983) . The disease is also published in other countries like Nepal, Afghanistan and Iraq (Zang et al.  1984) . Karnal bunt appear on  Triticum aestivum ,  T. turgidum  and  X. Triticosecale  (Agarwal and Verma  1979 ). Yield losses of different wheat varieties  caused by this disease are too low.