Smart cards are credit card sized with an embedded microchip
with processor, RAM and ROM memory. It is a plastic card that has different
technologies such as magnetic stripe, bar code, contactless radio frequency
transmitters, and can have the processing power required for different
applications when it paired with a reader. Controlled accessibility allows
personal and business information to be viewed by authorized personnel. Data
transfer is a technology that is becoming more and more widely used day by
day due to the convenience of transportation and the convenience of
transportation. Today, access control, electronic commerce, authentication,
privacy is very common in many applications that require privacy.Smart cards
can be classified according to electronic circuit structures, data
transmission type and size. Smart cards can be classified according to data
type as follows,
Those with safety equipment
There are two main classes, “contact” and
“contactless” according to the microchip on the smart cards. Some
cards may offer two separate microchips on contact and contactless
interfaces. Such cards are called hybrid cards. The type of card that this
feature is combined on the same microchip is called the dual card.
When using a contact smart card, the card must be inserted into
the card reader. This allows a direct connection to the conductive area on
the card surface.
Contactless smart cards are passed by an antenna so that they
can perform an operation. These are plastic credit cards. The only difference
is that a microchip and an antenna are embedded in them. These components
allow the card to communicate between the antenna and the connection element
without requiring a physical contact. The use of contactless smart cards is
an ideal solution for public transport and coin-operated systems where
operations need to be done very quickly. In contactless smart cards, the
distance between the reader and the card must not exceed 10 cm.
Smart cards that can be used in public key infrastructure and
e-signature systems are included in the cryptographic class. These smart
cards can be defined as durable, portable computers with programmable areas.
Smart cards are useful for systems with data security, identity
confidentiality and mobile user needs. The main technical features of these
cards are as follows:
-It is known as microprocessor. (8, 16 and 32 bit models are
-It has an operating system. (ACOS5, ACOS6, etc.)
-RSA, DSA, ECDSA asymmetric algorithms that can run the auxiliary
crypto processor has.
-The operating system and the crypto library are stored in the
ROM memory of the microcontroller.
-It has enough EEPROM memory to store crypto keys and
certificates. (Preferably 8 Kb or more)
-Once the private keys are inserted into the card, they can
never be removed.
-It is mandatory to enter the PIN code on the card to process
with the private key in the card.
A smart card with the above features provides the following
-Encryption and decryption on the card
-Signing on the card and confirming the signature
-Holding private and open keys on the card
-Write information into the card
-Password protected card
-Smart cards have private and public areas. Private area key
generation, signing, decryption, etc. are done, access to this area is
prohibited. The general information is written in the open area and the
information on the card can be seen by means of an intermediate software and
The dimensions of the smart card are determined according to the
international ISO-7810 standard. The ISO-7816 standard also specifies the
physical characteristics of the card, including features such as heat range,
flexibility, position of electrical contact and how the microchip will connect
with the outside world