Water lifelong disabilities, including brain damage from nonfatal

to most children means fun, play and adventure – in a pool, pond, and lake or
simply in the road following a rainstorm. However, water can be dangerous
because a small child can drown in the water. Drowning results in over 175 000
deaths in children and youth aged 0–19 each year. More than 450 children drown
each day throughout the world and thousands suffer serious lifelong
disabilities, including brain damage from nonfatal drowning events and children
under the age of 5 years are at highest risk of drowning, (World Health
Organization, 2014).

under five are the age group most at risk of drowning and swimming pools are
known for a large proportion of drowning deaths. An average of 30 children
under the age of five have drowned in Australia each year for the past 10
years. The Royal Life Saving National Drowning Report (2015) reported a 30%
increase in the number of drowning deaths recorded in children under five
nationally, with 26 deaths, up on the 20 deaths recorded in the 2014 report. Of
the deaths in children under five in 2015, over half occurred in swimming

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There were between 600–700 notified
fatalities due to drowning per year (mean=643.3, SD=43.4 over 8 years). No
apparent rise or decrease in volume of fatalities over these years. In 2007 the
national fatal drowning rate in Malaysia was 2.3 per 100,000. Drowning rates
were highest in east coast states (Terengganu 4.6, Kelantan 4.2), and in
monsoon period (November to March). 250–300 children died each year due to
drowning from 2000–2007 (mean=286, SD=27.5 over 8 years). This is 40–45% of
fatal drowning each year. In 2007, the fatal drowning rates were 3.0 for ages
below 18 years and 2.9 for ages below 20 years. Childhood fatal drowning rates
were 4.6 in boys and 1.3 in girls. Highest fatality rates were in children aged
10-14 years (3.4), and Malays had the highest number of cases (192) (Dr
Amar-Singh HSS, 2011).