WAH country during the 1970s and 1980s was

WAH
ENGINEERING COLLEGE

Engineering Ethics

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Report

 

Submitted to:

Sir Salman Ahmad

 

Submitted by:

Amir Raza                                                                                  
UW-14-B.Sc-EE-28
Muhammad Abbas Raza                          
                                  UW-14-B.Sc-EE-29
Qamar Ilyas                                                                                
UW-14-B.Sc-EE-32
Muhammad Owais                                                                     
UW-14-B.Sc-EE-48

 

 

 

Department of Electrical Engineering

Wah Engineering College (University of Wah)
Wah Cantt

Poverty

Hadith:

Narrated Hakim bin Hizam:

The Prophet(P.B.U.H) said,
“The upper hand is better than the lower hand (i.e. he who gives in
charity is better than him who takes it)….”

Ref:

96 hadith found in ‘Obligatory Charity Tax (Zakat)’
of Sahih Bukhari

Poverty:

” A certain level of
material deprivation, below which an individual suffers physically, emotionally
and socially. Poverty also includes low levels of health,
education, poor access to clean water and sanitation, security, and
insufficient capacity and opportunity to better one’s life.

POVERTY is a denial of
choices and opportunities, a violation of human dignity. It means lack of basic
capacity to participate effectively in society. It means not having enough to
feed and clothe a family, not having a school or clinic to go to, not having
the land on which to grow one’s food or a job to earn one’s living, not having
access to credit.

Types of Poverty:

1.     
Absolute poverty

Individually lack of basic human needs like clean
water, nutrition, health care, education, clothing and shelter.

2.     
Relative poverty

The condition of having fewer resources or lesser
income as compared to others, within a society as compared to others, within a
society or a country or as compared to worldwide averages.

Poverty in
Pakistan:

Poverty in
Pakistan has fallen
dramatically, independent bodies supported estimates of a considerable fall in
the statistic by the 2007-08 fiscal
year, when it was
estimated that 17.2% of the total population lived below the poverty
line. The declining trend in poverty as seen in the country during the
1970s and 1980s was reversed in the 1990s by poor federal policies and rampant
corruption.

This phenomenon has been referred to as the
“poverty bomb”.In 2001, the government was assisted by the International Monetary Fund(IMF) in preparing the Interim Poverty Reduction Strategy Paper that
suggests guidelines to reduce poverty in the country. According to a
report sub mitted by Ministry of Planning and Development in the National
Assembly of Pakistan, about 29.5% Pakistani lived below the poverty line which
translates into 55 million people.

Statistics:

According to an estimate of 2015, poverty in
different provinces of Pakistan is given below:

Ø  KPK 32%

Ø  Punjab 19%

Ø  Baluchistan 16%

Ø  Sindh 33%

A comparison of percentage poverty for 2005 and 2015
is shown of graph:

 

Poverty Cycle:

A poverty cycle is shown here. If a
family is poor then their children would grow in poor environment. They will
not struggle to achieve good opportunities. If anyone of them gets education.
There are less numbers of chances to get a job. It results that, he could not
escape from this environment and his new family grows in poor environment
again. This cycle is repeated again and again and it becomes difficult for a
poor man to get rid of poverty.

Causes of Poverty:

Some causes of poverty are, changing trends in a country’s
economy, lack of education, high divorce rate which causes feminization of poverty, having a culture of poverty, overpopulation,
epidemic diseases such as AIDS and malaria, and environmental problems
such as lack of rainfall and others.

In California reduced poverty in
the elderly with the creation of the social security program. Almost
50 percent of people in the world today live on less than $2.50 per day.

The poverty rate among seniors in the United
States is at 9 percent as of 2010.In 1960 the official poverty rate among the
elderly was 35 percent.The Netherlands offers a universal pension and leads the
world with a 1.7 percent poverty rate among the elderly.Extreme poverty may
affect the lifespan and the lack of money via some type of pension system
increases the poverty rate among the elderly worldwide. Issues like hunger,
illness and thirst are all causes and effects of poverty.

Extreme weather may be a cause
of poverty in many countries. Drought,
rainfall and flooding are some of the biggest causes of poverty by weather.
When natural disasters do
not gain media attention raising money becomes more difficult. This is made
worse when governments spend money in the capitals instead of the poorest areas
which need it most.

            Some other causes are also given below:

Ø  Natural disasters:

Ø  Feudalism

Ø  Lack of governance

Ø  Poor environment

Ø  Lack of poor vision and poor parenting

Ø  Lack of education

Ø  Lack of resources

Ø  Lack of planning

Ø  No family support

Ø  Bad character and bad morals

Ø  Selfishness and greed

Ø  Corruption

Effects:

The effects of poverty are serious. Children
who grow up in poverty suffer more persistent, frequent, and severe health
problems than do children who grow up under better financial circumstances.

Ø  Many infants born into poverty have a low
birth weight, which is associated with many preventable mental and physical
disabilities. Not only are these poor infants more likely to be irritable or
sickly, they are also more likely to die before their first birthday.

Ø  Children raised in poverty tend to miss school
more often because of illness. These children also have a much higher rate of
accidents than do other children, and they are twice as likely to have impaired
vision and hearing, iron deficiency anemia, and higher than normal levels of
lead in the blood, which can impair brain function.

Levels of stress in the
family have also been shown to correlate with economic circumstances. Studies
during economic recessions indicate that job loss and subsequent poverty are
associated with violence in families, including child and elder abuse. Poor
families experience much more stress than middle?class families. Besides
financial uncertainty, these families are more likely to be exposed to series
of negative events and “bad luck,” including illness, depression, eviction, job
loss, criminal victimization, and family death. Parents who experience hard
economic times may become excessively punitive and erratic, issuing demands
backed by insults, threats, and corporal punishment.

Some other effects are
given below:

Ø  Bad health

Ø  Hunger and pain

Ø  Crime

Ø  Drug abuse

Ø  Illiteracy

Ø  Terrorism

Ø  Depression

Solutions to Overcome
Poverty:

The best pathway out
of poverty is a well-paying job. To get back to prerecession employment levels,
we must create 5.6 million new
jobs. At the current pace, however, we will not get there until July 2018. To kick-start
job growth, the federal government should invest in job-creation strategies
such as rebuilding our infrastructure; developing renewable energy sources;
renovating abandoned housing; and making other common-sense investments that
create jobs, revitalize neighborhoods, and boost our national economy. We
should also build on proven models of subsidized
employment to help the long-term unemployed and other
disadvantaged workers re-enter the labor force.

In the late 1960s, a
full-time worker earning the minimum wage could lift a family of three out of
poverty. Had the minimum wage back then been indexed to inflation, it would
be $10.86 per
hour today, compared to the current federal minimum wage of
$7.25 per hour. 

One of our nation’s
most effective anti-poverty tools, the Earned Income Tax Credit, or EITC,
helped more than 6.5 million Americans—including
3.3 million children—avoid poverty in 2012. It’s also an investment that pays
long-term dividends. Children who receive the EITC are more likely to
graduate high school and to have higher earnings in adulthood. Yet childless
workers largely miss out on the benefit, as the maximum EITC for these workers
is less than one-tenth that
awarded to workers with two children.

With female full-time
workers earning just 78 cents for
every $1 earned by men, action must be taken to ensure equal
pay for equal work. Closing the gender wage gap would cut poverty in
half for working women and their families and add nearly half a
trillion dollars to the nation’s gross domestic product. Passing the Paycheck
Fairness Act to hold employers accountable for discriminatory
salary practices would be a key first step.

The
lack of affordable, high-quality child care serves as a major barrier to
reaching the middle class. In fact, one year of child care for an infant
costs more than one year
of tuition at most states’ four-year public colleges. On
average, poor families who pay out of pocket for child care spend one-third of
their incomes just to be able to work. Furthermore, federal child care
assistance reaches only one in six eligible
children.

Some
other solutions are given below:

Ø  Use of money in a discipline way

Ø  Stop discrimination of sex

Ø  By maintaining system of Zakat

Ø  To overcome corruption

Ø  Division of agriculture land

Ø  Avoid materialism

Ø  Live as close as you can to a budget and resist

Ø  Better government policies

Ø  Good wages

Ø  The guarantee of house, healthcare, food education
& cloths

Ø  The guarantee of pure water and providing the all
better rights

Ø  Creates reserve for unemployment fund

Conclusion:

            Poverty exists in every country and
every environment. It has some causes, effects but solutions also. So it could
be said that it is possible to eliminate poverty. If people and government both
are willing to eliminate poverty then it is possible to eliminate it. Our
religion also asks to take care of poor. There is a better way to help poor in
Islam and that is the way of Zakat.