VEHICLE enjoying more and more amenities and comforts.

VEHICLE POLLUTION AND EFFECTS

 

         With the ongoing advancement of
technology and industrialization, human beings are enjoying more and more
amenities and comforts. In parallel, environmental damage has also occurred by
over-use of technology. One of the major achievements of modern technology is
automobile which has made great contributions to the development of modern
society because of their affordability. Owing to their sharp growth, automobile
is emerging as the greatest urban air pollution source in the developing world.
Vehicles emit pollutant gases such as hydrocarbons(HC), carbon-dioxide (CO2),
carbon monoxide(CO), volatile organic compounds(VOC), nitrogen oxide(NOx),
Sulfur dioxide (SO2), and particulate matter(PM) which are causes of global
warming, smog, greenhouse effects and acid rain. Increased automobiles simply
mean increased air, noise pollution and escalated number of accidents. This
essay will discuss on vehicle pollution effects and evaluate a various
effective solution to mitigate the adverse impacts of motor vehicle use.

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In
the last few decades, Automobile sector has been growing sharply and we are
mostly using two main types of vehicles petrol and diesel which are flammable
and toxic. The internal combustion of diesel and petrol fuel in engines emit
unfavorable substances. Carbon-monoxide(CO),
nitrogen oxide(NOx), and un-burnt hydrocarbon(HC) aren’t visible gases. Carbon-monoxide(CO)
outcomes from the incomplete combustion which is harmful to human and animal beings
that breathe it. A recent government study (NSW Health, 2014) reported that “Carbon
monoxide can cause harmful health effects by reducing the amount of oxygen
reaching the body’s organs (like the heart and brain) and tissues. At extremely
high levels, carbon monoxide can cause death (carbon monoxide poisoning)”. Moreover,
carbon dioxide (CO2) is greenhouse gas
which does not affect directly to human health but it traps heat come from sun
and warms the Earth’s surface. Besides, melting of glaciers, droughts, climate
changes, rise of sea levels are harmful effects of global warming. Nitrogen
oxide(NOx) and sulfur dioxide(SO2) which react with particles
of water in the atmosphere and develop in acid-rain. It can have detrimental
impact on forests, infrastructures, and animals. Hydrocarbons and nitrogen
oxides react in the presence of sunlight to form ground level ozone which is main
ingredient of smog. Ozone causes headaches, breath shortness, nausea, irritates
eyes, and damages lungs. Myriad number of people in the world die each
year due to heart and lung diseases that result from air pollution.

 

There
are number of effective solutions to diminish harmful impacts of vehicle
pollution. Firstly, Electric vehicle is one of the greatest solution of vehicle
pollution because of their mechanical simplicity and the absence of direct
pollutant emissions. Secondly, Hybrid vehicle designs, the engine supplies
average power while batteries supply surge power for acceleration and absorb
power during braking. Running under steady state conditions at its most
efficient point, the engine in a hybrid vehicle could have very low emission
and such vehicles could more than double the fuel efficiency of present vehicle
designs. In addition, people should maintain their vehicles properly which can
help to improve efficiency of engine.

 

There
are several cause of vehicle emission such as driving patterns, traffic speed
and congestion, by the age, type, size and condition of vehicles engine and the
most importantly, by the emission control equipment, technology and its
maintenance. “The HEI review panel considered that there was sufficient
evidence to conclude that exposure to traffic-related air pollution causes
exacerbation of asthma. The evidence linking exposure to traffic-related air
pollution to several other health outcomes was weaker, but considered suggestive
of a causal relationship. These outcomes were onset of childhood asthma, non-asthma
respiratory symptoms, impaired lung function, total and cardiovascular
mortality and cardiovascular morbidity” (NSW Health, 2014).

Technical and economic measures to
discourage the use of private vehicles and encourage the use of public transport
modes are essential for reducing traffic congestion and controlling urban
sprawl. Appropriate design of roads, intersections and traffic control systems
can eliminate bottlenecks, accommodate public transport and smooth traffic flow
at the moderate cost which helps to diminish urban air pollution and improve traffic
safety (Faiz et al.,1996).

 

In
conclusion, stopping the growth in motor vehicle use is neither feasible nor
desirable, given the economic and other benefits of increased mobility. The
challenge then is to manage the growth of motorized transport so as to maximize
its benefits while minimizing its adverse impacts on the environment and on
society. Such a management strategy will generally require economic and
technical measures to limit environmental impacts, together with public and
private investments in vehicles and transport infrastructure. Motor vehicle
emission can be controlled most effectively by designing vehicles, modifying engine,
introduce new advanced emission controls technology which can help to reduce the
unfavorable pollutant gases. In addition, government should encourage people to
use public transport more and more instead of using private vehicles.