Utilitarianism unhappiness is described as pain or the

Utilitarianism
can be described as a theory that exists in normative ethics that argues that
actions are often right in proportion as they tend to promote happiness, and
wrong as they tend to produce the reverse of happiness. By happiness, the
theory means pleasure, or the absence of pain and unhappiness is described as
pain or the absence of pleasure. Utilitarianism argues that pleasure, and
freedom from pain are the only things that are desirable in the end and that
all the desirable are derived from pleasure. According to Bentham’s theory of
utilitarianism, the actions of individuals and institutions should be judged
primarily on their contribution to utility. The utility can be measured by
calculating the relative contribution of happiness as well as pleasure and it
does not take into consideration the moral principle values. An action can
therefore be described as being morally right if its consequences are able to
lead to happiness and if negates pain. The difference with that of Mill is that
Mill argued that utilitarianism should be judged on the greatest happiness
principle. This principle holds that one should act to product happiness to the
greatest number of people. Therefore, according to Mill, there is the aspect of
morality, which is based entirely on the consequences of that action.

The
Utilitarian can be described as being social reformers; this is because they
supported the suffrage for women as well as those without property as well as
the abolition of a slave trade (Smart 31). They show that there is a need for
criminals to be reformed and not just merely punished. In regards to the notion
of consequence, the Utilitarian includes all the bad and good that is produced
by the act, whether it arises after the act has been performed or during its
performance.

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 The theory argues that the difference in
consequences of alternative acts is not often great. According to Mill, actions
should often classified as being morally right or wrong if the consequences are
of such significance that a person wishes to see the agent compelled and not
merely exhorted and persuaded to act in a specific manner (Smart 34). For this
reason, there is a need for the greater good in different situations, and this
can be ensured by the utilitarian thought.

In the
assessment of the consequences of actions, Utilitarianism often relies upon
some theory of intrinsic value; this is something that is often held to be good
in itself. The Utilitarian analysed happiness as being a balance between pain
and pleasure and believe that these feelings alone are often of intrinsic value
as well as disvalue. The Utilitarian often assumes that it is possible to
compare the intrinsic values that are produced by different actions and often
estimate which would have better consequences. 

In
utilitarianism, there is an argument that virtue not only has instrumental
value, but also is constitutive of the good life. A person that has nor virtue
is morally lacking and consequently is not able to promote good. The
utilitarianism thought attacks social traditions that were justified by appeals
to the natural order, arguing the correct appeal is to utility itself. The
reasoning behind this issue is the fact that traditions have often turned out
to be relics of barbarous times, and it appeals to nature as a form of
justification.

Mill
argued that the Utilitarian doctrine desires the virtue and maintains that not
only is virtue to be desired, but also it is supposed to be desired in a
disinterested way (Sen 88). Therefore, virtue stands at the head of things that
are good as the means to the ultimate end and recognizing the fact that of the
possibility of being, to be good in itself without necessarily looking to any
end beyond.

In
conclusion, consequentialist moral theories can be described as being
teleological. This is because they are aimed at some goal states and evaluate
the morality of actions in terms of progress towards the state (Smart 26). The
utilitarian thought defines morality in terms of maximization of net expectable
utility for all parties that are affected by a decision or an action. The main
idea behind the utilitarian thought is to understand that actions are right to
the degree that they often tend to promote the greatest good for the greatest
number of people.