Throughout the 1980s and 1990s, a number of inquiries and a legislative reform was commissioned regarding the concerns of interviewing skills by police officers in the UK (Griffiths & Milne, 2006). These concerns addressed the potential for police to force interviewees into giving false confessions, using confrontational interrogation techniques, commonly used in the U.S. The Police and Criminal Evidence Act 1984 was introduced to standardise practices in England and Wales, introducing stricter statutory controls over the acceptable conduct required of interviewers in interviews, giving enforcement authorities the power to question suspects (Armstrong, 2015). It was created to replace the absence of formalised police interview standards, moving away from confrontational approaches (Carter, 2013). Even after the enactment of PACE, the majority of police officers were still not formally trained, most learning on the job, leading to a national review of police interviewing under the auspices of the Association of Chief Police Officers and the Home Office (Milne, Shaw & Bull, 2007). In 1992, this review led to the development of the PEACE model of investigative interviewing and training approach (Baldwin, 1992). The training consisted of five days that aimed to train the investigative interviewing approach to ensure that police officers had the basic interviewing skills to interview all victims, witnesses and suspects with integrity and in accordance with the law (Ord & Shaw, 1999). In regards to researching interviews and analysing them, it’s important to note that there was difficulty before recordings of interviews began. In 1989, West Midlands Police announced their intention to visually record a pilot interview, with many other police constabularies following in later years (Baldwin, 1992). Prior to these studies, Baldwin had the view that police officers approached interviews with difficulty, displaying aggressive tendencies towards the interviewees (Bull & Milne, 2004), however the analysis from interview recordings found that most were short and simple conversations (Baldwin, 1992). A later conclusion stated that police interview training should focus on interviews being evidence gatherers, instead of persuading a confession (Baldwin, 1992). With recordings, the interview does not have to rely on transcripts, which have been discussed to be a poor technique of extracting information from an interview (Milne & Bull, 2001), and can also contribute to pointing out any flaws in techniques used, which can lead to further research and evaluations (Moston & Engelberg, 1993). With this lack of evaluation and monitoring in the past, poor interview performances were blamed on the interviewers, and not on the police service for providing inadequate training in specific skills needed (Milne & Bull, 1999). In the past, police forces around the world interview trained merely through observation learning, which was part of the belief that that interview skills can only be learnt through practice and not in the classroom, with the assumption that questioning plays only a limited part in the detection of crime (Moston & Englebery 1993). Shepherd (1988) identified that even tho observational methods are cost effective, there are progressive disadvantages. The officers used as role models in the observational training may not necessarily be portraying the correct skills needed for effectively conducting an interview (Shepherd & Kite 1988), creating a snowball effect throughout training of police officers. With the development of PEACE and the use of recording, researchers were able to evaluate the interviews, coinciding with PEACE, which could give an insight to the areas of strengths and modifications that were needed. Research has predominantly focused on interviews with suspects, with another small scale study using stimulated witnesses interviews (McGurk et al, 1993). The stimulated interview research found that immediately after and six months after the training, interviews standards increased with skills performance and knowledge increasing, and consistent after six months. However, this research isn’t necessarily evaluating the PEACE model, and only interviews in general. Fewer studies have included separate analysis of each of the five stages of the PEACE model, with most only focusing on a few of the stages within the model. (Clarke & Milne, 2001; Clarke, Milne & Bull; Scott et al, 2014). However, it is important to note that all these studies have used a range of assessment scales, with the majority using modified versions of the scales developed by Clarke & Milne (2001), affecting the overall reliability of the evaluations of the model. With this gap in the literature, this critical evaluation will provide an analysis of the strengths and limitations of the different sections within PEACE, the ethical considerations, applications and how the model can be developed further.Planning and preparation Within this stage, the aims and objectives of the interview are prepared, focusing on supporting evidence needed, establishing the main questions, location of interview and management of disclosure of evidence in accordance the PACE. This part of the model has been criticised by police, in the sense that many cases are time restricted with short deadlines and large caseloads, with added pressure from managers and supervisors wanting a quick turnover (Sheperd, 1995), with more recent research supporting that this stage is adequate at best. However, it is important to point out that the evaluation of this stage was from recordings, with accesses to the evidence of planning and preparation being difficult (Clarke & Milne, 2001). Overall, this stage has seen an improvement, with research from Clarke et al (2011) finding that a survey indicated that planning and preparation was satisfactory. Engage and explainThe essential element of an interview is building rapport with the interviewee, giving an introduction appropriate to the circumstances of the interview. A strong rapport will induce a comfortable relationship between the interviewer and interviewee, which will allow a better expression and detailed outcome from the information given from the interviewee. This can also help at the start to determine the success or failure of the interview (McGurk, Carr & McGurk, 1993). Research has suggested that interviews often omit the rapport stage of an interview (Bull & Cherryman, 1995) In the National report (Clarke & Milne, 2001) the research found that when it came to the explanation of the interview, the skills were poor, and more training was needed in the area. However, ‘skilled’ and ‘satisfactory’ interviewers explained much better. These findings conclude that the social communication skills of explaining the purpose of the interview, how it will be conducted and that it is an opportunity for interviewees to give their account, are poorly conducted and can be seen that levels of skill does not affect this (Clarke & Milne, 2001). AccountThere are three methods used in acquiring the account from the interviewee, the Enhanced Cognitive interview (ECI), Free Recall and Conservation Management. The ECI is a recommended technique used to gain excellent quality information from the interviewee, either witness or suspect (Dando et al, 2008). The original CI ws modified to the ECI by Geiselman & Fisher (1987), rendering the CI more user friendly in real life interviews, instead of laboratory based studies such like the CI. The ECI has 7 phases; Greet and establish rapportExplain the aims of the interviewInitiate a free reportQuestioningVaried and extensive retrievalSummaryClosureCompared to the original CI, the ECI has found to retrieve 45% more accurate information (Fiser et al., 1987). The ECI and CI does prove effective, bit does increase extensive cognitive demands on the interviewer, therefore needs training in its use (Fisher et al, 1987). However, there is research to suggest that officers are not fully committing in the use of this technique. Clarke & Milne (2001) found that this technique is being used in interview for serious offences only,due to the fact that officers interviewing under time pressures feel they cannot use the full process, resorting to less effective and appropriate style of questioning. This encouraged a modified approach to the CI, as Free Recall. The Free Recall approach is a less tiered technique, which is simpler and quicker for officers who have less experience and for those who investigate less serious offences and who cannot afford enough time to conduct a full CI (Dando, Milne & Wilcock, 2008). Replacing tiers of the CI with similar versions of recall provided better performance than a structured interview, while being as effective as the current CI, despite being significantly shorter induration and, less demanding for the interviewer (Dando et al, 2009). Research has indicated that police investigators believe the CI and Free recall techniques are too complex and time consuming, suggesting that perceptions of PEACE from police officers are mostly negative. Conversation management is another technique used by England and Wales (Bull & Cherryman, 1995). Its main use is for interviewees (suspects and witnesses) that are unwilling to cooperate, and requires the interviewer to take control of the interview very early on, and to produce a skilled interpersonal performance (George & Clifford, 1992). Closure & EvaluationResearch has often found that closing the interview is often rushed, however is a fundamental part of the interview. Its purpose is to ensure there is a mutual understanding of what the outcome of the interview is(Clarke & Milne, 2001), and to give them a chance to add to the account. In the Clarke & Milne report (2001), closure was overall rated low, with 59% of interviewers did not summarise what had been said and 62% didn’t ask the person if they wanted to add anything to the account, and abysmal 83% did not explain what would happen next. Similarly, the likelihood or effectiveness of the evaluation stage has been questioned, by the lack of ability from police officers to evaluate themselves (Milne & Bull, 1999). With the evaluations only being available from video recordings, it is difficult to interpret if this stage is effective or even implemented, therefore has limited research (Walsh & Bull, 2010). Griffiths & Milne (2006) found improvements, but focused on simple or procedural aspects of the interview, with the social and communication skills lacking skill and dissipate over time. Overall, PEACE research has suggested that trained investigators were significantly more likely to be rated as skilled or highly skilled interviewers, whilst untrained investigators failed to obtain comprehensive accounts (Walsh & Milne 2006), and that interviewing can still be improved by the use of supervision (Clarke & Milne, 2001). From this, PEACE has had an overall positive effect on interviewing, however a lack of positive perceptions and training for all officers imposes a negative outcome for PEACE, where more research is needed in evaluations of interviews and a focus on rapport building. The development of research throughout investigative interviewing has contributed to the dangers that arise with interrogation and an overall reliance on confession evidence (Williamson, 2013). With a set of ethical principles proposed by PACE and interviewing skills underpinned by PEACE, together they can supply a continuous development pathway in professionalising investigative interviews. The use of the ECI and Conversation Management techniques have been reviewed and modified for the needs of development of crimes, suspects and witnesses. These are outlined in the next part, focusing on the purpose of refocusing from confession based interviews and interrogation, types of witnesses and crimes that need alterations in interviewing strategies and modifications of the CI model. Entrapment and False ConfessionsIn the last 20 years, England and Wales police services and the government have focused on improving police interviews, partly due to a number of miscarriages of justice, such as the Guildford four and Birmingham six. In the Guildford four case, the police used methods of interrogation that overstepped the proper bounds of police conduct, which lead to falsified confessions off the four wrongfully convicted. Sleep deprivation, food deprivation, severe verbal abuse and physical abuse were only some of the techniques used through the interrogation, and surprisingly each of the four consistently maintained the confessions were obtained by violence and threats (Schoeller-Burke, 2013). The statements from all four had consistencies throughout, which were from details intentionally being made up to satisfy the police and bring the interrogations to an end. Similarly, the Birmingham six case had evidence of police impropriety in that they fabricated evidence concerning some of the defendants’ interview records, and that they were physically threatened and assaulted before confessing (Gudjonsson, 2003). Statements were also taken from four of the six, which contained incorrect details of events after falsely confessing (Gudjonsson, 2002). The phenomenon of false confessions occurs for different reasons, including dispositional and situational factors (Kassin & Gudjonsson, 2004), with research suggesting that there are psychological factors that can increase the chance of a false confession, however it is hugely on the basis of repetitive stimuli throughout the interrogation experience (Kassin & Gudjonsson, 2004). From these dramatic changes throughout the past few years in interviewing, one element still remains the same. Police still rely on statements throughout interviews, even though they are now currently recorded (Schollum, 2005), however only represents a small portion of interviews. research continues to find a pattern of poor practice when capturing in statement form the substance of what a person actually said (Daniell, 1999). Similarly, deficiencies are are reported in a study by Hooke & Knox (1955) that found most of the statements taken were unsatisfactory, being consistent throughout points of the overall statement. The deficiencies that are associated with written statements and summaries encourage the risk of wrongful conviction and wrongful acquittal. Milne and Bull have found much evidence from police, officers, judges and psychologists that they acknowledge written statements to be unreliable. Milne & Bull (2003) reinforce this in their criticisms of current practices around taking written statements from witnesses, stating that to conduct an appropriate interview and to concentrate on the verbal and nonverbal behaviour while taking notes is not possible, and the interviewees account will suffer. Vulnerable VictimsThe definition of vulnerable victims is discussed in PACE (1984) under the UK legislation The Youth Justice and Criminal Evidence Act 1999, and are defined as children under 17 years, individuals with mental illnesses (as detailed under the Mental Health Act 1983), have a physical disability or are suffering from a physical disorder or impairment of intelligence and are highly traumatised. When vulnerable witnesses become under the pressure of being interviewed, particular care and support needs to be given from the interviewer. It can be argued that all interviewees are vulnerable to a greater or lesser extent, however there are certain groups that do have greater vulnerability to forms of poor interviewing. In this case, the interviewer is responsible for attaining quality information, from using appropriate procedures and techniques (Milne & Bull, 1999). The use of the ECI has been found to be the best form of interviews with child witnesses (Milne & Bull, 2003). A study reported by Geiselman & Padilla (1988) found that the ECI enhances accurate recall reported by children by approximately 21% however to be completely effective, the techniques need to be clearly communicated to the child, with a possibility of a practise interview before hand. In cases such as domestic abuse, children are required to recall individual occurrences that have been repeated, and possibly from a prolonged duration (Brubacher, Powell & Roberts, 2014). The most important procedure in these interviews are rapport building with the child, which can be implemented by adopting their language (Brubacher et al, 2014), and encouraging them to talk about particular offences one by one. Westcott & Kynan (2006) found that interviewers who had received relevant training were able to deliver the four phases in the recommended order (Rapport, Free narrative, Questioning, Closure) and rapport building involved adequate discussing of non investigation topics, however relatively few conducted the free narrative phase appropriately, and moved onto the questioning phase immediately. It can be argued that the lack of rapport building and open questions asked are similar to the procedures not being covered in interviews of adults also, which could express a lack of training in these areas that may need further research. Police officers are reluctant to apply the CI technique when interviewing a witness that has been exposed to a traumatic experience, because of the fear of re-traumatising them. Shepherd et al (1999) devised a modified CI procedure, which is known as ‘Spaced Cognitive Interviewing’, which spaces out the interview into several sessions over a week or more. This can ensure that the relevant information can be shared about an incident without increasing anxiety or fear (Schollum, 2005). It is recognised that the interview must be done by someone well trained, and committed to the view of recording the interview for later analysis of content, which can be used for any uncertainty in the account. (Sheperd et al, 1999) TerrorismWith terrorism on the rise and becoming more of a focus of policing, interview techniques have been modified for these instances. Police officers themselves are not immune to emotional reactions that are caused by terrorist acts, and is possible that their feelings may be exacerbated because of exposure to horrific details about a terrorist attack and pressure to “solve” the case from the media. (Roberts, 2009). Interviews with suspects of terrorism are usually urgent and quick, also known as the ‘ticking time bomb’ scenario, in cases of gaining important information immediately to stop a possible terrorist acts (Dershowitz, (2002). Another point to add is that police interviewers are often exposed to different cultures when interviewing terrorist suspects with different expectations, attitudes, beliefs and sometimes language. (Gelles et al, 2006). In these circumstances, communication between interviewer and suspect may be problematic, perhaps requiring the use of interpreter, which still can cause barriers in communication. In these contexts, threatening and otherwise oppressive interview tactics are a risk, especially being unsupervised (due to lack of legal representation) nature of the urgent interview. These robust interview tactics may lead to unreliable information and damage to the well-being of the suspect and damage to the reputation of the police (Roberts, 2011). With PEACE in mind, the technique focuses on building rapport with the interviewee, and with a terrorist suspect is the most important. However, a robust terrorist suspect arrest is likely to hinder making rapport with an emotionally aroused subject, therefore a useful tactic would be for the interviewers to explain to the suspect at the outset of the interview the need for security during an arrest and that their role is not about security, but about giving them an opportunity to explain their version of events (Roberts, 2011). Modifications of the ECIIncreasing recall is crucial for investigative interviews, and with research demonstrating that the ECI has increased recall in the past, the technique has been modified to improve the process even more. The original CI was based on laboratory tests, however when used in real life experiments, it was found that witnesses and crime victims experienced more anxiety through the interview (Gudjonsson, 1992). Therefore improvements were made to create the ECI which still incorporates the original CI techniques, but provides additional sections to ensure that rapport is established, the witness is encouraged to use imagery and focused retrieval and control is transferred to witness. An extra stage was introduced (Milne, 2004) because it was recognised that there may be a point in the interview to to introduce information that is important to the investigation but the interviewee has not already been mentioned it. More recent research from Paulo, Albuquerque & Bull (2016) focused on increasing recall with a new interview strategy, category clustering recall. This involves organising information into groups that relate to certain points of information. In this study, the stage ‘change order mnemonic’ was replaced with the CCR technique, and found that participants were able to recall a considerably higher number of correct details in comparison of those who used the mnemonic stage. In support, Tulving, (1991) stated that CCR could be a very effective recall strategy that might trigger additional memories. Overall, the impact from interview techniques in the modern era has seen many modifications due to the everchanging crimes, and that research needs to further the understanding of refocusing interviews for evidence purposes, and to not steer away from the enhancements made from regular training and research.