chapter analyses the incidence of malnutrition and determinants of child
immunization and underweight at birth in West Bengal by controlling a wide
variety of variables including parental characteristics, household
characteristics. For proxy of economic status of the household standard of
living index is calculated. From the CAB data set body Mass Index (BMI) of the
mother is calculated. BMI range from 12kg/m2 to 55kg/m2
are taken. Children of age group 12 months to 23 months are taken for full
immunisation. For underweight child the age group is taken from 0 years to
5years. The main conclusion of this chapter is as follows:
Underweight at birth is a implication of
malnutrition. In India it is seen that prevalence of underweight is still a
crucial problem in India. Out of 29states in 16 states more than or very close
to 30percent child are underweight.
Haemoglobin is an indicator of child
health, which build immune system of body. Less than 11gm/ dl is considered as
a any anaemic. In West Bengal it is seen that percentage of anaemic children is
very high in all districts of West Bengal.
Under NRHM child immunisation has been given
a top priority. The objective of this programme is to reduce the child
mortality rate especially the infant mortality rate by vaccinating the child
against life threatening diseases. Data shows that in West Bengal the percentage
of fully immunised child from backward caste population are more than the other
castes. This may be due to the different schemes and programmes provided by the
Government to reduce the inequality in health.
In our society religion and caste still
are under vicious circle. In child immunisation also these has significant
effect.Study found that muslim children are less likely to be fully immunised.
This may be due to the social factor of conservativeness of the family member. Children
from ST population are also less likely to be fully immunised. Social exclusion
or lack of awareness or ignorance may be responsible for it.
One interesting result is found that
rural children are more likely to be fully immunised compare to the urban
child. One fact has to consider that here fully immunised child implies not
missing of any single doses of vaccine. Priority is given to the the rural
sector by NRHM scheme or the ICDS scheme, which provide door to door
facilities. So the grassroots level importance makes it a success. Janani
Surkhsya Yojona (JSY) is one of the parts of the programme; successfully bring
the mother under the service provided by Government.
Gender discrimination plays a crucial
role. Result shows that if the child is a baby boy probability of immunisation
+4 point to be immunised.
In case of underweight child, religion
shows a impact on it. Children from muslim community are more likely to be
underweight. This may be due to the high birth order among the community.
Finally it can be concluded that
mother’s health is very and ultimate important factor for a baby’s weight at
the time of birth. If the mother’s body weight is not proportional with her
height or if she wants to become mother 1st time at higher age these
increases the probability of underweight of the baby.
reduction of the child mortality is a major goal in a lot of development
projects, programmes and research. Elimination of early death is a necessary
condition for anything else that we can wish to succeed. Studies found that
child diseases and underweight at birth are due to some preventable reasons and
can be reduced by some appropriate concern and awareness.