Thesis colonial war, France and Great Britain each

Thesis Statement: Indigenous people in Canada have experienced great discrimination and they have been terribly mistreated in the history. In these days, indigenous people started change their position by giving an equitable education, enhanced economic development and respect for treaty rights indigenous people.Background Indigenous peoples have been in Canada since time immemorial. They formed complex social, political, economic and cultural systems before Europeans came to North America.  Indigenous people include Inuit, Métis and First Nations. During the colonial war, France and Great Britain each wanted to secure strong alliances with these First Nations to secure their military control in North America. At last, indigenous people were under British control.the 1763 Royal Proclamation is the basis for the recognition of their Aboriginal rights to lands and resources (Indigenous and Northern Affairs Canada).                                                              As the military role of First Nations people “waned in the eyes of British administrators after the War of 1812, new ideas began to take hold. Legislation was introduced in 1876 which would have a deep and long lasting impact on First NationsTreaty Rights and RecognitionIndian Act between 1876 to 1996The Indian Act of 1876 was a consolidation of regulations that affected First Nations people living throughout the country. The push to “civilize” First Nations became the focus of legislation, and policies and amendments to the Indian Act became increasingly coercive and controlling of the lives of First Nations people.Between 1879 and 1996, tens of thousands of First Nations children attended residential schools designed to make them forget their language and culture, where many suffered abuse 1884 Aboriginal potlatch celebrations are made illegal under the Indian Act. Aboriginal Rights in Constitution Act 1982section 25:The guarantee in this Charter of certain rights and freedoms shall not be construed as to abrogate or derogate from any aboriginal, treaty or other rights or freedoms that pertain to the aboriginal “recognition of existing aboriginal and treaty rights” is included in Section 35 –the beginning of a new era of land rights activismIn 1946, a special joint parliamentary committee of the Senate and the House of Commons undertook the management of Indian affairsFirst Nation leaders were able to address parliamentarians directly instead of through the Department of Indian Affairslargely rejected the idea of cultural assimilation , against the enforced enfranchisement provisions of the Indian Act and the extent of the powers that the government exercised over their daily livesthe committee recommend that unilateral and mandatory elements of the Act be scaled back or revisedthe Act banning the potlatch and other traditional ceremonies were repealedprovision of better healthcare services in the mid-1950s.First Nations across the country began to create provincially based organizations that forcefully expressed their people’s desire for equality with other Canadians, while maintaining their cultural heritage.In 1960, First Nations were at long last extended the right to vote in federal electionsFirst Nations veterans played a big role in this important advance, pointing out that, despite having fought for Canada in two World Wars, they were still deprived the right to voteSome Aboriginal leaders were organized their people to fight back and obtain justiceF.O.Loft, an Ontario Mohawk chief and veteran of WWI, went to london to try and bring attention to the plight of his people. He set up the League of Indians of Canada. Native Brotherhood of British Columbia tried to protect Aboriginal lands and their mining, logging, fishing, and human rights from being usedThe growing recognition of Aboriginal rights in Canadian law led to calls for greater recognition of the contributions of Aboriginal peoples to Canadian societyOn June 13, 1996, after considerable consultation with Aboriginal organisations, June 21st was officially declared National Aboriginal Day.significance: recognition of Indigenous people important place within the fabric of Canada and the ongoing contributions to Canadian societyEducationThe Indian Act(1880-1996) is amended to give responsibility for the education of children to mostly church -run residentials schools.the Canadian government believed it was responsible for educating and caring for aboriginal people in Canada. pass their adopted lifestyle on to their children, and native traditions would diminish, or be completely abolished in a few generations.The Canadian government developed a policy called “aggressive assimilation” to be taught at church-run, government-funded industrial schools, later called residential schools.According to the Truth and Reconciliation Commission, at least 3,200 Indigenous children died in the overcrowded residential schools. Underfed and malnourished, the students were particularly vulnerable to diseases such as tuberculosis and influenza In 1990, Phil Fontaine, then-leader of the Association of Manitoba Chiefs, called for the churches involved to acknowledge the physical, emotional, and sexual abuse endured by students at the schools.In the Royal Commission in 1996 the report recommended a separate public inquiry into residential schools.In 1978, the federal government adopted a new educational policy for Indians which was based on the Indian Brotherhood’s policy document, Indian Control of Indian EducationIn 2005 the federal government established a $1.9-billion compensation package for the survivors of abuse at residential schools, and in 2007 the federal government and the churches that had operated the schools agreed to provide financial compensation.Four leaders of the Presbyterian Church signed a statement of apology in 1994, and Prime Minister Stephen Harper delivered an official apology to residential school students in Parliament on June 11, 2008.Economy Development Historically, indigenous people were fishing, hunting, so economic activities depended on geographical availability and seasonal patterns of major food sources. Now, economic activities are diverse and span many industries and profession In 1991, only 43 percent of Aboriginal people were working for a monetary income. Fifteen years later, data from the 2006 Census shows the employment rate for Aboriginal people of core working age (25 to 54) increased to 65.8 percent.Government support:From the early 1980s to mid-1990s, federal expenditures directed toward Aboriginal peoples more than tripledINAC provides an Income Assistance Program for individuals and families living on reserves to assist people with meeting basic needs and provide pre-employment supportLaunched in June 2009, the Federal Framework for Aboriginal Economic Development represents a fundamental change to how the federal government supports Aboriginal economic development, with the ultimate goal of ensuring that Aboriginal peoples can enjoy the same opportunities for employment, income and wealth creation as other Canadians strengthening Aboriginal entrepreneurship; enhancing the value of Aboriginal assets; forging new and effective partnerships to maximize economic development opportunitiesIn 2012-13, Aboriginal Affairs and Northern Development Canada invested over $45 million to provide financing, business support and information to increase the competitiveness and success of Aboriginal businesses in Canadian and world marketsFramework also focused on increasing Aboriginal participation and procurement opportunities in major projects across the countryan $8 billion contract was awarded to Seaspan Marine Corporation which has amended its procurement policy to encourage Aboriginal sub-contracting, partnerships and joint venturesIndigenous People in present The declaration, enacted by the General Assembly in 2007, recognizes Indigenous people’s basic human rights, as well as rights to self-determination, language, equality and land, among others.