There are many advantages that the Europeans had to help them carve out huge empires an ocean away from their homeland. The already established state and trading connections help the Europeans transport their resources, making them more stable in the foreign land. The warfare technology that that held, like gunpowder, gave them an upper hand in the battles that they faced. Rivalry between the civilizations already existing in the Americas help the Europeans. For example, the Aztec empire and the Mexican empire had tension between them, so when the Spanish arrived, the Aztec willingly joined the Spanish, in hopes of beating the Mexicans. The advantage that helped the Europeans the most, however, were the new diseases and bacteria that they brought to the new land. Most Americans had no immunity to the diseases so many died off, weakening the empire’s power. 2. What large-scale transformations did European empires generate?European empires created many large scale transformations. Due to the lack of immunities that the native Americans had, many natives died. The new plantations that were manifested needed workers. Thus, the slave trade emerged since many cheap laborers were found in Africa. These slaves would be forced to extract cotton and sugar from the land. Because of the wealth of the colonies, the European Industrial revolution immersed. Precoiusmetals, crop, slaves, financial profit, and natural resources became the foundation to the revolution. Another large-scale transformation that the European empires ignited were the animal and plant exchanges. Plants like potatoes, wheat, and sugar were being transported to new locations around the world while animals like cattle, pigs, and horse were being transported to new locations around the world. Potato became a foundation food in many civilizations due to its cheap pricing and nutritional values. 3. What was the economic foundation of colonial rule in Mexico and Peru? How did it shape the kinds of societies that arose there?The economic foundation of colonial rule in Mexico and Peru was found in commercial products; specifically, agriculture. The silver and gold minings became a foundation economic-wise because the goods found in the mines were rare and was important to other civilizations. These goods would be desired, allowing money to flow towards Mexico and Peru’s colonial rule. Natives became the source of labor in the atmosphere. Because of the heavy reliance on getting the commercial goods, hierarchical societies arose. The forced labor that was produced gave the invaders more authority. To keep this authority, strict, distinctive social classes were established and centralized ruling arose. 4. How did the plantation societies of Brazil and the Caribbean differ from those of southern colonies in British North America?People’s view on the different colors of the workers varied between the Brazil and caribbean plantations and the British North American plantation. People were more rigid in their views on skin color in North America. People weren’t as accepting in mixed offsprings that were produced. People were considered black if only a fraction of their ancestry had African descent in them. Skin color was a major factor in deterism and was what set people apart from each other.More slaves were allowed freedom in Brazil than in America. Owners of the slaves would voluntarily let them go. 5. What distinguished the British settler colonies of North America from their counterparts in Latin America?Many British settlers tried to distance themselves from their motherland. They would create new colonies by their new standards instead of remaking the colonies in their old European societies. They would stop attempting to spread Christianity to the natives. This contrasted their motherland’s actions because the Europeans went on crusades to spread the religion.The Spanish and Portuguese had racial mixing in them while the British didn’t. 6. What motivated Russian empire building?The Russian Empire had the Mongols in their mind when building their empire. The Mongols were a major threat to the Russian Empire because they constantly attempted to conquer Siberia. Siberia had many goods like fur and other animal products. These goods were desired by many civilizations, so the area was considered wealthy. Wealth correlated with power in civilizations. This desire for power drove the Russians to defend Siberia 7. How did the Russian Empire transform the life of its conquered people and of the Russian homeland itself?Conquered people would have to take an oath to be loyal to the new ruler. This oath would be followed by giving tribute to show the Empire respect and to give the Empire dominance. Many epidemics arose; similar to the epidemics that other civilizations experienced when new people conquered them. Because the Russians took over, hunting ground became more limited as agricultural settlers took the land. The conquered people would experience strict power since the Russians were highly militarized. Their high military power came from their fear of being conquered. 8. What were the major features of Chinese empire building in the early modern era?The Chinese Empire building was largely driven by fear that they would get overthrown by another civilization. The empire would bring in people who weren’t Chinese. This tactic would lead to a higher population. A high population gave empires more power since they had more people to be part of the military and fight for the empire. People going into the empire however had to show respect to the ruler and the culture. This tribute that would be given gave the empire more dominance and power; making it stronger. 9. How did Mughal attitudes and policies toward Hindus change from the time of Akbar to that of Aurangzeb?Mughal changed vastly when it came to it’s attitudes and policies towards the hindus from Akbar’s rule to Aurangzeb’s rule. During Emperor Akbar’s rule, a large amount of Hinduism was incorporated. The emperor payed and supported the buildings of mosque and other religious temples. Even though akbar made the empire heavily influenced by Hinduism, he allowed other religions to be expressed. Aurangzeb however changed Akbar’s’ actions. He made Hinduism illegal and heavily enforced Islam into people’s lifestyles. 10. In what ways was the Ottoman Empire important for Europe in the early modern era? The Ottoman empire opened other empire’s eyes due to it’s welcoming for many religions. Other empires at the time had a main religion that most people in the empire would follow by. The ottoman empire however allowed any religion to be expressed. The empire controlled the goods that were being passed on trade routes because of the empire empire’s location. Many European empires saw the Ottoman empire as a threat. Define The great dying – 90% of the Native American population died due to the diseases that the Europeans brought. The lack of immunity t these diseases was the root of the problem. Because of this decrease in population, more laborers were needed;thus, the slave trade emerged and grew.Columbian exchange – An exchange in resources from and to the Americas. This exchange allowed civilizations come into contact with food or animals that they hadn’t previously. Civilizations came in contact with foods that would be able to sustain them better than other foods used. The slave trade also grew from the exchange.Peninsulares – Spaniards from spain who were put into a higher class than the spaniards born in Latin Because of the difference in ranking, a feud grew between the Peninsulares and the creoles.America.Mestizos – Because of the gender imbalance in Spanish settlers’ population, a mixed race emerged. The Mestizos were the creation of Spaniards and Native Americans.Mulattoes – Like the Mestizos, the Mulattoes were mixed raced. However, the Mulattoes were a mixed race from Africans and Europeans. They were ranked lower than “pure Europeans”.Plantation complex – Plantations were located in the Americas and were used for large scale s production. These locations needed great amounts of labor so slaves were used. Settler colonies – The north American settler colonies was higher in population that the Latin American settler colonies. A racial divide was more present in the North American colonies.Siberia – An area in East rusia where fur the root of wealth. The area was known for having large amounts of fur that would be traded off to areas that desired the product.Yasak – Tributes from the Siberians to the Russians. These tributes often presented the Russians fur with their allegiance to the empire.Qing dynasty empire – After the Ming dynasty was overthrown by the Manchurians, the Quing dynasty emerged. Russia and central asia were close contacts with the empire during the dynasty.Mughal Empires – Babur unified a fragmented India to create the Mughal Empire. It’s emperor, Akbar, would be titled it’s greatest emperor.Akbar – He was the greatest emperor of the Mughal empire. Although the empire was heavily influenced by Islam, Akbar allowed Hindu culture.Aurangzeb – The Mughal Empire was lead into a downfall due to Aurangzeb’s efforts to not tolerate Hindu culture.Ottoman Empires – Osman founded the empire that would stand to the 1900s. The Christian culture, Russian empire, and more were often encountered by the Ottoman empire.Constantinople, 1453 – Constantinople Byzantine city was conquered in 1453 and this conquering would lead to an increase in trade.Devshirme – The Devshirme allowed boys who trained as janissaries to convert to Islam to be ranked higher in society.