The to spread peaceful nuclear technology to other

The Nuclear Non-Proliferation Treaty was a
major compromise that heavily affected and continues to affect the world and
prevented conflicts like the Cold War from escalating into full nuclear
warfare.

 

The
Non-Proliferation Treaty, or Npt, is a disarmament treaty that went into effect
on March 5th, 1970. It promotes the peaceful use of nuclear energy. According
to former arms control negotiator Robert T. Grey, a former U.S. arms control
negotiator, the NPT is

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“in
many ways an agreement as important as the UN Charter itself.”

 In 1995, the United Nations agreed upon the
permanence of the treaty, allowing it to remain in effect indefinitely. More
States have signed the Npt than any other disarmament treaty in history, a
proof of its success and significance.

In
1953, when Dwight D. Eisenhower gave his “Atoms for Peace” proposal, he talked
about the changes that were being brought about, and stated,

 “The atomic age has moved forward at such a
pace that every citizen of the world should have some comprehension, at least
in comparative terms, of the extent of this development, of the utmost
significance to every one of us. Clearly, if the peoples of the world are to
conduct an intelligent search for peace, they must be armed with the significant
facts of today’s existence.”

In this speech, He
urged that an international agency be created to spread peaceful nuclear
technology to other countries around the world. This speech started
negotiations, and, in 1957, the International Atomic Energy Agency, or IAEA,
was created to do this. After this, nuclear non-proliferation talks were going
on inside the UN as early as 1957. All of this led to, in the 1960s, a treaty
that made peaceful nuclear practices around the world the norm, and, in 1968,
final agreements had been reached on a non-proliferation treaty. The Treaty
contained 11 articles and it went into effect in 1970. The 10th article of the
Treaty stated that, in 25 years, the parties would convene to review the treaty
and decide to whether or not to keep it in use. The
decision, as stated earlier, was to keep the NPT in effect indefinitely. Article
10 also stated, however, that the UN would continue meeting every five years to
convene and discuss the operation of the NPT.

Today,
in total, 191 countries have joined the NPT. The 5 biggest powers are: the US,
China, UK, Russia, and France. In fact, China, a signatory since 1992, has
benefitted greatly from this as nuclear energy has helped growing electricity
demand. As per the NPT’s 7th article, Ukraine, Kazakhstan. Some of
the countries with or suspected to have nuclear weapons are that haven’t signed
are India, Pakistan, and Israel. In 2003, North Korea withdrew from the treaty,
having been a signatory for 18 years. In terms of the Cold War, the NPT
prevented the US and its allies from having a nuclear war with the USSR and its
allies, an example of nuclear Parties and Non-nuclear parties co-operating
towards non-proliferation.

Article 1
says that no nuclear-weapon party may give a nuclear device or control of any
nuclear device directly or indirectly to another Party or State, and not in any
way to help or push another Party to manufacture or acquire nuclear devices.
One of the only exceptions to this is the U.S. using NATO’s, the North Atlantic
Treaty Organization, nuclear sharing policy to provide Belgium, Germany, Italy,
Netherlands, and Turkey with nuclear weapons.

 

 

Article
2 says that no non-nuclear-weapon party is allowed to accept any nuclear
device, or control of any nuclear device, directly or indirectly. Additionally,
they are not allowed to manufacture or acquire a nuclear device by any means,
or seek help in manufacturing nuclear devices.

Article
3 says that All non-nuclear weapon Parties of the Treaty must follow, in
addition to the guidelines set by the Treaty, to the Guidelines set by the
IAEA. All Parties are prohibited from providing a source of fissionable
material or providing it directly to any Parties, even if for peaceful
purposes. They are also prohibited from offering equipment for the process of
fission to any non-nuclear party, even if for peaceful purposes. Additionally,
all guidelines set by this Article have to be in accordance with Article 4 of
the Treaty.

Article
4 says that no guideline should be interpreted as interfering with the peaceful
usage and research of Nuclear energy. It also states that all Parties have the
right to participate in the exchange of equipment, materials, and scientific
and technological knowledge of nuclear energy.

Article
5 says that all Parties must take the correct steps to make sure that, on a
non-discriminatory basis, any benefits that come from the explosion of nuclear
devices will be made available to any non-nuclear weapon parties, and that the
cost of these devices will be made as low as possible and exclude any charge
for research and development. It also states that these benefits will be shared
through a proper international body with proper representation of all parties
involved.

Article
6 says that all Parties must seek negotiations and effective measures to end
the nuclear arms race, and to disarmament.

Article
7 states that nothing in the Treaty prevents Parties from creating laws that
create an absolute void of all nuclear weapons in that territory. For example,
Ukraine, Belarus, South Africa, and Kazakhstan have all gotten rid of nuclear
weapons.

Article
8 says that any Party may propose any amendment to the Treaty. The text of any
Treaty must be submitted to any Depositary Governments, after which they will
be spread to all other Parties. After this, if one-third of the Parties request
it so, the Depositary Governments will set up a meeting to vote upon the
amendment. The amendment requires a majority vote to pass. So far, in its
nearly 50 years of operation, no amendments have been added to the NPT

Article
9 states that all States can sign the Treaty at any time. For the purposes of
the Treaty, any State that has exploded a nuclear device prior to January 1st,
1967.

Article
10 says that any Party may withdraw from the Treaty at any time, should the
Treaty interfere with the State’s general interests. Also, 25 years after the
Treaty goes into effect, the Parties will meet in order to decide if the Treaty
should stay in effect. However, it was decided to keep it in effect. It also
stated that the UN would meet every Five years to review the npt.

Article
11 says that all different languages of the text are all worth the same.

 

 

 

In
the end, there are still some countries like Iran that are still building
weapons. North Korea decided to leave the Treaty in 2003, and ever since,
tensions have been increasing between the United States and North Korea. Though
this is a big blow to the Treaty, the Treaty is still the most successful disarmament
Treaty to exist. It will likely keep the world safe for generations to come.