The human body and in different parts to

    The endocrine system is one of the most important systems in our body.
It consists of eight major glands, which are the hypothalamus, thymus,
pancreas, pineal gland, pituitary gland, thyroid gland, parathyroid gland,
adrenal glands, and reproductive glands (ovaries and testes) (Rizzo, 2001). The
endocrine glands play a key role in synthesising and releasing hormones directly
into the blood stream. The hormones are then circulated to target specific
organs to cause effects on the metabolism rate (body energy levels), growth rate, tissue function, and
sexual development. For example, the pituitary gland secretes growth hormone,
which controls the growth of bones and muscles.


    There are many different
significant roles for the endocrine system. To begin with , it helps to control
the processes of Homeostasis (the internal balance of body systems) and response
to stimuli (stress and injury) (Sargis, 2015). for instance, the hypothalamus
which is located below the thalamus and is part of the limbic system produces
releasing and inhibiting hormones, which stop and start the production of other
hormones throughout the body (Sower, Freamat and Kavanaugh, 2009). So basically, the
hypothalamus works to regulate the other glands in the endocrine system as the
hypothalamus is affected by the positive and negative feedback mechanisms.

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are many rising concerns that endocrine disrupting chemicals that are defined
as “exogenous chemical substances that obstruct the function(s) of the
endocrine system and consequently causes adverse health effects in an intact
organism, or its progeny, or sub-populations” will exert many effects on human
beings (Melmed et al., n.d.) . Research has clearly
showed that the endocrine disrupting chemicals can act within the human body
and in different parts to cause effects. 
Endocrine disruptors chemicals (EDCs) can bind to a receptor within a cell and block the
cell’s binding site; this causes an effect on the normal signalling and leads
to body response failure. This happens because the endocrine disruptors
chemicals (EDCs) mimic or partly mimic the naturally occurring hormones such as
oestrogens (the female sex hormone), androgens (the male sex hormone), and
thyroid hormone by, potentially producing overstimulation and deceiving the
body into over-responding to the stimulus or responding at inappropriate times (Sonnenschein and Soto, 1998) . For example, the endocrine disruptor
chemicals (EDCs) can disrupt either the synthesis or the secretion of thyroid
hormone, which can result on developing diseases such as autoimmune diseases
(Shah and Rjoshi,2016) . However, the autoimmune disease can also cause
endocrine disruption either by hyperfunctioning or hypofunctioning of the gland
depending on the level of the disruption the disease arises. One of the disease
is grave’s disease. Graves is an autoimmune disease causing hyperfunction of
the thyroid gland(hyperthyroidism); the autoantibodies bind to the thyroid
stimulation hormone receptor (TSH receptor) on the thyroid cells leads to
activate the receptor to send the signals to the thyroid cell to produce
thyroid hormone (, 2018). the autoantibody mimics the function
of the thyroid stimulating hormone. in this
condition, the thyroid stimulating hormone produced by the pituitary gland is
within the normal range or reduced.


Therefore, the presence of endocrine disruptors
chemicals in our environment raises concerns, especially that its harmful
effects have been observed on growth and development of wildlife species. Also,
a slight increase in human reproductive disorders has been detected, besides
the benign tumours and malignant tumors. Tumors are abnormal
proliferation of cells which either remains confined to its original location
such as benign tumor or capable of both invading surrounding normal tissue and
spreading throughout the body such as the malignant tumor (Cooper, 2000).


endocrine disruptor chemicals can have different effects in the humans body.
One of the major consequences of endocrine disruptors chemicals (EDCs) is on
the reproductive system. Several studies report that the endocrine disruptor
chemicals (EDCs) can cause a decline in sperm quality, sperm count, the
proportion of normal sperm and semen volume, which might be expected to affect
fertility (Ayaz et al., 2017). Whereas, other studies have various results regarding
endocrine disruptor chemicals (EDCs) and sperm quality (Safe, 2000). As such
the topic has become quite controversial. Hence, further research and studies
need to be carried out to provide more sufficient results that show a clear
relationship between the endocrine disruptor chemicals (EDCs) and the effected
sperms. Another effect of endocrine disruptor chemicals (EDCs) is on the nervous
system function; human and animal experimental studies clearly show that
exposure to certain endocrine disrupting chemicals (EDCs), such as
Polychlorinated Biphenyls PCBs particularly before birth can harm the
development of the nervous system (Gore et al., 2015). As a result, new born
babies may have nervous system problems that may appear immediately after birth
or later on in life.


Environmental chemicals can disrupt the endocrine signalling pathways
that are made during perinatal life-which is the period surrounding the time of
birth about three months before to one month after birth – and result in
adverse consequences on the human health that may not appear until later on in life.. Most recently, obesity has been proposed to be yet
another adverse health effect of exposure to endocrine disrupting chemicals
(EDCs) during critical stages of development. Obesity is cruelly becoming a
significant human health crisis because it is reaching epidemic proportions
worldwide. Also, it is associated with chronic illnesses such as diabetes and
cardiovascular disease (Newbold et al., 2017).comment


    The fact that
many known and suspected endocrine disrupting chemicals (EDCs) are being found
at environmentally significant concentrations in the effluent of wastewater
treatment plants (WWTPs) is receiving increasing attention in public and
regulatory arenas (Scruggs et al., 2004). The public is concerned about the
safety of consuming trace amounts of endocrine disrupting chemicals in drinking
water, though the only confirmed negative effects from these disruptor
exposures have involved wildlife health.

Ample research opportunity exists for the
scientific community on the topic of most endocrine disrupting chemicals have
not been studied or identified, analytical methods for many identified endocrine
disruptors have yet to be developed, and the levels of toxicological
significance or impact must be established (Scruggs et al., 2004). they also
mention that additional work must also be done to determine the potential for the
interactive toxicological effects in EDC mixtures and the formation of
undesirable byproducts through treatment. It is likely that the environmental
protection agency (EPA) will not consider regulating EDCs until more research
has been completed (, 2017).


in all, even though many of these chemicals can disturb development
of the endocrine system and the organs that respond to endocrine signals in organisms, further
research and studies need to be carried to detect the effect of the endocrine
disruptors chemicals on the human body. 
Meanwhile, campaigns, leaflets, and poster advertisements should be
considered to raise awareness and prevent any risk posed by endocrine disruptor