The code of Hammurabi was a set of 282 laws/punishments that were created in Ancient Mesopotamia by the emperor, Hammurabi. These laws/punishments were very harsh and cruel as many can agree to. The main purpose for them being so harsh was that Hammurabi wanted to prevent all potential conflict and keep order while he ruled. Many of the laws were based on family, since family was a very important matter in this time of period in Ancient Mesopotamia. The code of Hammurabi has definitely influenced political thoughts in various ways. It was basically the first code of law to be made to punish people who would commit crimes which influenced that to be a thing in many countries because of the code of Hammurabi. In each country there is different ways to punish someone for a crime, it depends obviously, but the code of Hammurabi was insanely more harsh than in laws these days even though in some places of the world some punishments can be very harsh. The code of hammurabi also influenced of how a government should be made, to have a very powerful leader who makes the best to have a successful running country, and how to classify their own people in different classes. Isaiah was a Jewish prophet, basically the jews had this belief that God used the prophets to bring in messages to his people. The main contribution of Isaiah or any other prophet was their messages and one of the messages were that the Jews had not been faithful at all, but if they could recover from this evil that was controlling them, God would be forgiving; was the main message that the Jews had to fulfill. Isaiah had a book in the bible, where he stated that actions that were cruel would bring severe punishment. He was very glad that God that chosen him to write prophecies and speak them out about the restoration of Jerusalem. Also, he was concerned for all humanity and the social injustice that was happening, all he wanted was peace. He predicted the coming of God onto the grounds of the Earth. Buddha or also known as Siddhartha Gautama wanted his thousands of devoted followers to achieve wisdom, that was his message and his contribution into creating a new spiritual philosophy. His philosophies were, the Four Noble Truths, the Noble Eightfold Path, and the Five precepts. By following all those, he claimed there would be an end to unsatisfactoriness and suffering. He also taught the principles of Karma. Confucius was a philosopher that wanted a answer of how to restore order to society in the sixth century B.C. where there was a great confusion in China and where rival armies would fight all the time. He travelled all over China as a “political counselor”. The most important thing to him was the morals of people in the real world. His philosophy was his religious contribution which was that he believed were born as a good person and they would achieve all this knowledge if they had virtuous leaders. He also believed that it was disrespectful if you did not obey your superiors. This lead into students of him contributing his sayings that guided the Chinese into becoming better people with good morals. Isaiah represents the religion Judaism, Buddha represents Buddhism, and Confucius represents the religion Confucianism. There is major differences in all these religions and the figures themselves, but there is also some similarities. One of the main differences is that there is no god for Buddhism or Confucianism, only for Judaism, which is God. A similarity is that Buddha and Confucius had philosophies as their religion contribution. Also, all three religious figures wanted the best for the people that followed them, even though Isaiah was just a prophet and wasn’t really like a teacher like Buddha and Confucius. Athens and Sparta have differences and similarities of course. The similarities concluded that they were both very powerful city-states and their governments was an oligarchy, but for Sparta it was headed by two kings and for Athens it was aristocrats in control and also at first Athens was ruled by a king. There is a lot of differences between these two city-states. One of them was the Sparta was a military state and Athens was more just like a normal city-state where they really wanted to be powerful and successful. Another difference is that Athens was less successful than Sparta because Sparta never had economic problems, but they did have the problem that they controlled the people too much. In Athens there was slaves, but in Sparta there was not any of them. Athens then later had a direct democracy which Sparta did not have. A influence that Sparta had on “Western” political thought today is to have a monarchy government. The influence that Athena had on “Western” political thought was their direct democracy, if they hadn’t developed direct democracy, today in present time there might have even not been such a thing as democracy. The philosophies of Plato were that an ideal state there would be three groups of society, the philosopher kings, the warriors, and everyone else. In the philosopher kings, the people that were considered that, were men that would achieve high power because of how smart they were. In the warriors, they were people who protected society. In the third group, it was the people who didn’t follow by wisdom or courage, but for what they desired. Plato believed that men and women should have equal rights, such as having the right to education and access to positions in society. In his own true words he thought that a good society could be met if political power and philosophy met. The lasting contribution that Plato has made on philosophy is on how he based education and the rights of people on philosophy. This ideal government was a republic.The philosophies of Aristotle that there should be a rational form of government. He analyzed different states to find which form of governments were the best. He concluded that the the three good types of governments were, monarchy, aristocracy, and constitutional government. He believed the best type of government for people was a constitutional government. The lasting contribution that Aristotle had on philosophy were the contributions of logic, metaphysics, mathematics, physics, biology, botany, ethics, politics, agriculture, medicine, dance and theatre. The way the Roman empire was Latinized was that the armies started conquering lands, but in these lands they got taken over them. They changed the idea of the Roman government, or more like force the government making the Roman empire be latinized. There was also educated citizens everywhere in the empire that spoke Latin. Since the start the main language of Rome was Latin. The culture and politics of Rome spread because they would send Roman citizens to spread the culture in places that they wanted to conquer. Also so the locals would come to accept it faster after each conquest that was successful.