The result of the research questions is based on time restricted experiments. This result could be different in the long run and it is therefore not valid in that case. The values for when the soil is considered to be too wet or too dry is dependant on the type of soil used. These values cannot be used on other types of soils, which have to be individually set with the help of the testsThere are two types of irrigation systems, which is hand-watering irrigation system and automated irrigation system. Hand-watering is one of the most common methods of irrigation in greenhouses across the world. Water and fertilizer are typically delivered to the plant foliage in addition to the surface of the soil. Proper watering techniques require practice and skill to manually deliver the appropriate amounts of water to the plant in addition to timing the watering between plants relative to the time of day. This allows growers to attend to each plant, which allows individual special needs to be addressed. However, water used is difficult to recapture and reuse. Higher concentrations of fertilizer and larger volumes of water are also required as the plant does not absorb all of what has been distributed as well as water is being lost to evaporation or mishandling. Automated irrigation systems allow the grower to irrigate and fertilize a large area of crops with minimal process waste and staffing. It greatly reduce or eliminate labor and the potential for human error. Water and fertilizer use can also be minimized as these systems can more readily accommodate recycling of water. Equipped sensors can monitor how much water and fertilizer your plants are getting. Overall, greenhouses can be irrigated automatically so growers can water crops with minimal staff while maintaining time to inspect and manage the crop growth. Greenhouse irrigation automation is a proven standard in Europe. As greenhouses continue to become more popular in the United States, automation will grow toward becoming the standard as legislation regarding water use and runoff becomes stricter. Figure 1.2 Mini automated greenhouse sample The time period for conducting our final year project is divided into two. On the first half of our semester, we put our focus more on the planning of equipping the soil moisture sensor, temperature sensor, water pump and the heating mechanism as we believe that building this greenhouse Is not easy and should be well planned. During this period of time, we have planned the greenhouse outer design, mechanism and materials that will be used. In order to ensure the planned design and mechanism function efficiently, we also has bought several necessary items and measured the actual items. From the dimensions obtained, we have sketched our automated greenhouse on a SolidWorks software for future reference. As for the second half of our semester, we will be focusing more on the production of our automated greenhouse, well equipped with a temperature and soil moisture sensor. 1.3 Problem StatementIn northern climate countries, certain goods such as fruits and vegetables could not grow well because of the cold weather. In an attempt to obtain these goods, importation is becomes an essential need. However, these imported goods are less flavorful which is caused by the shipping process and sold at a higher price. In order to create a suitable environment for the fruits and vegetables, a greenhouse is needed. Since an automated greenhouse requires much lesser effort in taking care of plants rather than a manually-handled ones, this particular project is chosen. Therefore, a moisture sensor based watering system will be utilized. 1.4 ObjectiveGardening is one of the popular hobbies among the people in the midst of busy work culture and urban life style. Gardening seems to release the stress, healthy spending of the leisure time effectively. But the apartment living has no free space for gardening. As a result, small scale greenhouse is now the hottest trend in the century. Greenhouse is a structure that the user used to grow the plants. It is built with a specific need for the type of plant they wish to grow. So the structure varies depending on type of plant and scale of size. Although it creates a perfect environment for plants, it needs human care to control the optimum status of the house such as ventilation. Automated greenhouse is to ease people when they wish to grow plants. It helps to monitor the situation, when they are not at home. The main aim of this paper is to minimize the human care needed for the plant by automating the green house and monitor the in-house environment status. A single unit of the greenhouse structure prototype has been constructed and integrated with the sensors. The control system is designed with Arduino Uno micro-controller.In conclusion, the objective of this project is to enable the students to perform necessary studies and analysis related to engineering as well as implementing our engineering skills and knowledge in order to create a mini greenhouse which are capable to ensure excellent plant growth without the need of manpower. 1.5 Soil Moisture Sensor As for my role, I am responsible for the soil moisturity detection by using a soil moisture sensor. This sensor should be able to detect the soil moisturity The Soil Moisture Sensor uses capacitance to measure dielectric permittivity of the surrounding medium. In soil, dielectric permittivity is a function of the water content. The sensor creates a voltage proportional to the dielectric permittivity, and therefore the water content of the soil. Figure 1.3 Soil Moisture Sensor The sensor averages the water content over the entire length of the sensor. There is a 2 cm zone of influence with respect to the flat surface of the sensor, but it has little or no sensitivity at the extreme edges. The figure above shows the electromagnetic field lines along a cross-section of the sensor, illustrating the 2 cm zone of influence.