Part in line with conservation factors. Preservation

Part I. Conservation and Preservation


Though the two terms are often used interchangeably, they have different meanings. Conservation refers to the use of a resource in a way that such resource is not put to waste.

Conservationists therefore promote applications of the subject elements for developments on the condition that the existence of such elements will be protected in the process of application activities. Environmental conservation for example involves the use of environmental resources without causing harm to the resource or interfering with other people or living things that depend on such resources.

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Cases such as exploration of land resources without clearing vegetation that will have effects on animals which depends on such vegetation for shelter and food among other effects will therefore be in line with conservation factors. Preservation on the other hand refers to the maintenance of status quo. Under preservation believes the subject element is to be left in its existing state and protected from any form of interference.

Preservation wit respect to the environment therefore entails the protection of the environment from any form of activity for fear of the amount of harm that such activities can cause. Environmental preservation will therefore call for abstinence of any form of activity that affects the environment, whether or not such activities will have a negative impact on the environment. It will therefore for example prevent an economic undertaking that would ensure exploitation of the environment with conservative approaches (Sustainable, n.d.).

Side of Inclination

I would support conservation approach instead of preservation of the environment. My opinion is based on the fact that the level of advancement of technology can allow for exploration of resources such as underground oil without significant interference of the environment. A preservative approach will on the contrary just hinder economic developments (Berg, n.d.).

Part II. Risk assessment paper- Malathion pesticide


The city of Genericville is faced with a problem of a number of infections that is spread by mosquitoes. The high number of the vector is facilitated by the city’s feature of a river that runs right through its centre. One of such infections, “west Nile virus”, is a dangerous infection of the nervous system and has high cases of fatalities (Axia, n.d.).

A proposal has been made for the adoption of a pesticide to help in the eradication of the mosquitoes. There have however been debates and a final decision is necessary. This work seeks to discuss the risk management with respect to the mosquitoes’ infection and possible effects of using the pesticide. The work will identify the risk, available response, exposure and risk characterization.

Hazard identification

The city of Genericville has a geographical feature that is seemingly its basis for economic stability. A river that runs through the city is its centre of tourism attraction which is one of the city’s main sources of revenues. The river banks is also an essential component of the city as it provide food for animals such as birds and the fish that lives in the river.

Unfortunately, the river banks facilitate breeding of a mosquito species that transmits a number of diseases. The existence of the mosquito species is therefore a hazard to the city in a wide range of ways. The immediate and severe hazard that is posed by the breeding and the existence of the mosquito species is the human related diseases that are transmitted by the mosquitoes.

The fatality of such infections such as the “west Nile virus” has for instance been identified as a health hazard in the city with an almost five percent casualty and significantly recognized number of fatalities (Axia, n.d.). The identified infection of birds is another threat to the city’s ecosystem taking into consideration the energy flow along food chains that could mean transfer of such infections to a large number of animal species.

This has however not been proved but remains to be a possible threat. There is another extensive threat that the mosquito infections pose to the city. Being majorly dependent on tourism, the threat of infections to the area’s visitor may reduce the number of tourists in the city which will mean reduced revenue for both the city and its citizens who depend on tourism for their living.

There would therefore be an indirect threat of increased level of unemployment and poverty in the region. The city could also suffer from economic setbacks if sanctions are made against it following fears of spread of the infections from its mosquitoes. The problem of mosquito infections is therefore a significant hazard in the town with a wide range of negative impacts that calls for measures of control (Axia, n.d.).

Dose response

The impacts of the mosquito hazard have called for a measure to use a pesticide to control the breeding and the ultimate population of the mosquitoes in the city. After suffering from the identified nervous disease that killed a relative, one of residents of the city has agreed to fund a program for the control measure. This activity is to be undertaken in the form of aerial spray coupled with a subsequent use of the same pesticide on the ground to ensure a complete eradication of the insects (Axia, n.d.).


The application of the pesticide as proposed will have a wide level of exposure to the mosquitoes as well as other organisms in the town. The spraying approach will for instance ensure a wide coverage of the drug to include the atmosphere. This will mean that a wide variety of materials will get into contact with the pesticide.

Its mixture with air would for example mean its presence even in people’s houses as well as being absorbed into masses such as water bodies and plants. The entire ecosystem of the city will therefore be exposed to the pesticide. This would imply a comprehensive approach to countering the mosquito population from their breeding ground to their hiding places. The ground application of the pesticide would also ensure that all breeding sites for the mosquitoes are identified and the insects controlled (Axia, n.d.).

Risk characterization

Though the infections that are transmitted by the mosquitoes are a hazard to the society, there could be a substantial number of risks involved in the application of the pesticide as well as its mode of use. Though arguments for safety of the use are being advocated for in the long run, it is clear that the use of the pesticide has some risks to the city, at least for some time.

The first evident risk of the use of the pesticide involves the general toxic effects of pesticides which poses risks to the city. The extensive approach of spraying could at the same time pose a risk of its high concentration in the atmosphere that could be dangerous.

This threat would at the same time be transmitted to organisms that live in water as well as under the earth’s surface in case of rains. There is also the risk of ignorance that could expose people to the dangers of the pesticide for failing to comply with safety regulations over the application of the drug. The use of the drug is similarly feared to carry risks of infections that like the nervous system infection transmitted by mosquito could be fatal to the city’s population.

There is also a possibility that the use of the pesticide could kill organisms that through their feeding habits have been helping to control the mosquitoes’ population which could in the long run pose more threats of the mosquito’s infection when their breeding resumes after the use of the pesticide. This could also affect the city’s tourism attraction elements which includes fish. It will also pose a threat to the entire ecosystem following food chain energy flow (Axia, n.d.).


The use of the pesticide may seem to be effective in controlling the population of mosquitoes for the control of their infections. There is however a chance that the people who are to be protected by this move might as well be fatally endangered besides destruction of the entire ecosystem. I would therefore vote against the use of the insecticide on the ground that educative measures to avoid contact with mosquitoes can on the contrary be a safer idea.


Axia. (n.d.). Preservation and conservation. (Attached document-MS word)

Berg, L. (n.d.). Visualizing environmental science. New York, NY: John Wiley and sons.

Sustainable. (n.d.). Earth, conservation & preservation. Retrieved on May 6, 2011 from: