The intercepting the activity of environmentally acquired toxins

kidney is an organ that executes a critical function in the body. Notably, the metabolism
and elimination of administered therapeutic and diagnostic agents, as well as
environmental exposures, are key functions. The kidney is exposed to a more
substantial proportion and a higher concentration of drugs and toxins than
other organs through the secretion of ionic drugs by tubular organic ion
transporters across the luminal membranes of the tubule 1 and through the reabsorption of filtered toxins into
the lumen of the tubule. Therefore, renal tubular epithelial cells are at higher
risk for injury 2. Indeed, drug-induced kidney injury is a severe problem
in clinical practice and accounts for 19%–26% of cases with acute kidney injury
(AKI) among hospitalized patients 3.

drugs can prevent graft rejection and autoimmune diseases. After solid-organ transplantation, TAC is now an accepted primary
immunosuppressive agent that could modulate neutrophil infiltration during
inflammation 4. The mechanism of tacrolimus induced nephrotoxicity is still unclear. Several factors
may be associated with it including increased production of vasoconstriction factors, such
as endothelin or thromboxane, and a decrease in vasodilation factors like
prostacyclin, prostaglandin E2, and nitric oxide. TAC also can produce reactive
oxygen species (ROS) via activation of NADPH oxidase pathway and cause a disturbance
in antioxidant defense which may be responsible for nephrotoxicity 5.

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Studies on natural products that may minimize TAC-induced nephrotoxicity
are still marginal. Green tea extract and polyphenols abrogated TAC-induced
nephrotoxicity in mice, rats, and LLC-PK1 cells (a porcine proximal tubule cell
line). Also, they significantly suppressed the increased intracellular reactive
oxygen species levels as well as caspase-3 activation6-8.

Ocimum group of species have been shown to possess a wide range of chemopreventive
and therapeutic activities 9;10. Also, extracts of the leaves displayed dominant antioxidant activity in
various assay models 11,12. Ocimum
basilicum had been found to
contain linalool, eugenol, methyl chavicol, methyl cinnamate, ferulate, methyl
eugenol, triterpenoids and steroidal glycoside known to display antioxidant
activities 13-15. It is, therefore, possible that the extracts may serve as a remedy by
blocking or intercepting the activity of environmentally acquired toxins such
as mycotoxins, insecticides, and pesticides. Therefore, the primary goal of the
study is to evaluate the protective efficacy of the OB extract against TAC-induced
mitochondrial nephrotoxicity in CD1 mice.