The marginalized community so as to protect and

The
aim of this research paper is to highlight the inequalities faced by the group
or community that is eradicated from the society in terms of participation in
local life. Marginalization deprives the person from privileges and the
opportunities that are essential for survival .The main purpose of the Indian Constitutions
to uplift the marginalized community so as to protect and empower people with
basic rights that will ensure economic and social democracy though out the
country. It is widely
acknowledged that education has an important role to achieve a greater degree
of social justice. The educational institutions are expected to equip children
to the best of their ability for securing a meaningful place in society and
thus fostering a process of developing an egalitarian society. However, a large
number of children belonging to community of the third gender are still
excluded from the educational system and hence cannot participate meaningfully
in the economic, social, political and cultural life.
A comparative analysis on the literacy rate of group of transgender has been done.
The outcome of this paper is to make a clear identity of the human being which
is being criticized in every aspects of life and the challenges faced by them
in educational, in family or in society on the whole.

Keywords- transgender,
literacy, freedom of expression, social responsibility, identity.

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Introduction

Transgender is a terminology
relating to a person’s
gender identity that is different than that of the expectations of the society
ex. These are the intersex people whose sex is not assigned or determined at
the time of birth. They are ignored, marginalized and treated as untouchable
and impervious; they are deprived of the social and cultural participation and
contribution. Not only this, since in many countries their legal status is yet
to be determined, they are being dispossessed and robbed of many rights and the
privileges which the other genders enjoy and benefit as a citizen of the country. 

 

Transsexual
and Transgender Community – Down History Lane:

Brief History Of Hijra, India’s Third
Gender
 

 

 

Each and every
human being, be it a male or a female is uniquely created by GOD and yes, a
transgender also is one of them. A transgender or Hijra or the Third gender as
referred to nowadays, has a totally different question always haunting their
mind – “Why are they created so uniquely or in such a special different way,
which is so difficult to explain to the common man in today’s society. They are
differently known in society as Hijra, Eunuchs, Kothis, Aravanis,
Jogappas, Shiv-Shakthis, transgenders or the third gender in the modern world. 

India’s Trans
women community widely known as Hijras can be traced back to over 4,000 years
as part of the subcontinent for as long as its existence which has being
mentioned in ancient texts and the Hijra Community is a testament to the sexual
diversity that is integral yet often forgotten and ill-treated in Indian
Culture. They are discriminated to a great extent in today’s world on the
whole.

The Hijra community
has been mentioned in ancient literature, the most known of which is
the Kama Sutra, a Hindu text on human sexual behavior written sometime
between 400 BCE and 200 CE. Hijra characters hold significant
roles in some of the most important texts of Hinduism, including the Mahabharata and the Ramayana. One of the many forms of Shiva, a principal Hindu deity,
involves him merging with his wife, Parvati,
to become the androgynous Ardhanari,who
holds special significance to many in the Hijra community. In
this ancient literature Kama Sutra, they
have also been referred as ‘tritiyapakriti’
or third gender has been an integral part of Vedic and puranic literatures, it
categorises men who desire other men as a ‘third
nature’. The word namely ‘napunsaka’
has been commonly used to denote the absence of procreative capability of a
person.Hijras held important positions in court and various facets of
administration during the Mughal-era India, from the 16th to 19th
century.

Lord Rama,
in the epic Ramayana, was leaving
his kingdom for 14 years of exile and was headed to the forest, he asked all
his followers men and women to return back to the city but among these
followers, the hijras alone did not feel bound by his instructions and decided
to stay with him no matter what. Overwhelmed by their earnest devotion, Rama
bestowed on them the powers to confer blessings on people for auspicious
occasions like childbirth and marriage, and also at the inaugural functions for
which, it is believed set up the occasions for all the customs of Badhai where Hijras sing, dance and
confer blessings. They receive gifts in cash and kind for all these ceremonies.In
Hindu mythology, Bahuchara Mata who
is a Hindu Goddess is considered as the patronage of the Hijra community in
India.

Spiritual: Unlike transgender identities in many
western countries, hijras have built their tight-knit communities around
religion.