Chain. which in turn affect the buyer. The

Chain. Most hospitality organizations function with two units, franchise locations and corporate owned locations. Currently most corporate-owned hotels procure their goods through the headquarters, and franchise hotels procure goods independently. If hotels integrated the entire spend of every hotel, franchise or corporate, they would stand to save substantially on purchases. However, hotels must make the procurement process simple and cost-attractive to the franchises in order to ensure their participation.

Of the hotel chains that currently do this, virtually all use horribly outdated business practices, intensive manual labor, and time-wasting paperwork and processes. These can be easily replaced today with automated, electronic processes. In hospitality organizations (hotels, casinos, resorts), the overall emphasis has been moving towards automating the purchasing and receiving process. In fact, many hotels are now electronically ordering directly to corporate offices and regional purchasing centres. The centralized system creates a purchase order and sends the order via integrated facsimile to vendor supplier.

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Once the order has been created in the system, an electronic copy of the purchase order is transmitted back to the unit level so that orders can be reconciled electronically as they are received. Another operation generates a “market list” from the ship and electronically sends the list to the corporate central purchasing system, which issues a purchase order and then transmits a copy of the purchase order back to the ship. The ship, like the hotel described above, also reconciles each purchase order based on receipt of goods. 1. Just in time The characteristics of JIT purchasing differ from the traditional purchasing strategies.

JIT purchasing principles, the main objectives are to achieve reduced inventory holding costs, increased quality levels and increased utilization among many others. JIT sourcing, in theory, provides many benefits to the buyer, but many buyers in practice are not implementing the requisites that are generally considered to be essential and resulting in a number of problems for their suppliers, which in turn affect the buyer. The JIT purchasing philosophy only leads to increased costs for the suppliers due to the fact that buyers tend to move the problems to the upstream of the supply chain.

In other words, the gain of some parties is a result of redistribution of costs among the members. The problem is therefore to examine the benefits and the costs of JIT purchasing from both the suppliers’ and buyers’ point of views. The next is to improve constantly in time. Improve in manufacturing and service, and to do it one at a time rather than more at a time. When a problem comes along, the JIT believes that this is a challenge for improvement and does not try to cover it all up. This concept also aims to make sure that there is a good design control in order to avoid problems at a later stage.

Simplicity of the manufacturing, instalment and usage of the product is also an aim for the “just in time” concept. Shortly mentioned but not least important are also visual control of package, focus on customer’s needs, production to customer demand and respect for the individual as a whole. There are some rules adopted by the “just in time” concept in order to make it work. The first and major one is to eliminate waste as a whole. By this I mean that if something does not add value to the product or service, as far as the customer is concerned is a waste.

An example may be too many unnecessary advantages in a machine or equipment, as some people find it hard to get used to things. Such wastes can be of overproduction, waste of waiting for raw materials, waste of movement, waste of inventories, motion, making defects, waste of process itself. And hence what the JIT strategy is, is to eliminate all wastes and this can be done by refraining from small inventories in the system and at a later stage to aim to eliminate more, always comply with the customer’s expectations for a better design and functioning of each product, be flexible at manufacturing, be a team player etc.

Most of the large firms apply JIT purchasing for most of their outsourced products, subassemblies and raw materials. JIT purchasing is beneficial for most of the firms that implement all the prerequisites of JIT philosophy fully. A. Housekeeping It would seem obvious that an organized and uncluttered work place is conducive to efficient and effective manufacturing. Visiting some plants reveals that not everyone is sufficiently convinced. Poor housekeeping includes random location of tools, dirty equipment, poorly lighted areas, and cutting oil, material remnants, and chips on the floor.

In general, poor housekeeping sends the message that: “What takes place here is not important. ” The effect of this message on effective operations may be greater than just the physical obstacles of poor work place organization. Few would argue that good housekeeping is a prerequisite to JIT. A few basic rules for housekeeping include: 1. Keep tools clean, lubricated, calibrated, sharp, and in there designated location. 2. Clean, inspect, and repair tools during or immediately after teardown 3. Classify tools, jigs, attachments, and supplies on the basis of the frequency of their use and store accordingly.

Store materials and supplies in designated locations Mark each location so that what belongs there is clearly visible, both when the spot is empty and when it is occupied. Visibility is crucial for identification of parts, tools, and supplies. 5. Avoid the “Call Housekeeping” syndrome. Let each employee or small group be responsible for the order and cleanliness in an area. This motivates everyone to keep things clean and in order and also raises the importance of housekeeping. Although housekeeping is not the most exciting topic, the improved quality and productivity that often follow improved housekeeping can be very exciting.

2. Maintenance The maintenance is to preserve and extend the life of a building. A relationship does exist between the adaptability of the original building design, maintenance cost and new construction costs. A. The three main types of maintenance are planned, preventive and running. The first is Planned maintenance, which is organized and carried out with a forethought control, and records are kept as to when it should be done. The Preventive maintenance is the second one, which is done in certain periods of time or due to the recommendations of the manufacturer in order to prevent an eventual breakdown.

The corrective on does also occur and this may really complicate things for the Management and the guests. This is when a break down occurs and the item has to be repaired or changed with another. The running maintenance is certainly the better alternative and it is being carried out while the item is still in service. B. Planned and Preventative Maintenance (PPM): As any property professional will vouch, prevention is better than cure when it comes to maintaining buildings and assets.

The PPM module can lead to vast savings in time and capital as regular service and maintenance checks can be set against any part of a building, from a roof to a window, or against any individual asset, from a boiler to a photocopier. The location of a given asset may be logged in the Asset Register to a particular location, and from there a set of works and maintenance checks may be assigned against it on a regular basis, time-scaled to your specification. These tasks may then be assigned to the responsibility of an individual, or a contractor, for whom works orders may be raised each time a task becomes due.

The benefits of a structured PPM strategy are numerous, from the eventual economic benefits- less breakdowns and emergency repairs, through to contractor and asset performance monitoring and the foundation of a historical service record. Planned Preventive Maintenance (PPM). The PPM philosophy is to foresee any breakdowns, to apply proper procedures for prevention and corrections, plan the possible outcome of a breakdown and search for alternatives for solving the eventual problem and take the appropriate action even for further problems that may occur. These are only part of the reasons why I believe that the PPM is most important.

For the PPM to work and be effective, the following needs to be. The system should be cost effective, to be legal, to reduce the running maintenance to a minimum, to meet operational needs and for the workmen to be more maintenance jobs than just inspectional ones. In order for the PPM to go well, there also has to be a sufficient training of personnel. If that bit is being done properly, then there should not be a problem with the rest. Cleaning is also a category of the planned preventive maintenance and has to be done properly to ensure good presentation and disinfections for the prevention of contamination.