The growth in children’s? 3. What are the

The importance of sleep on our physical and cognitive
performance

Introduction

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For every single human being, one of the most important way
from which our body and mind recover from the long hard activities in the day time,
is through a good night SLEEP. The phenomenon of sleep is very important not
only for growing kid but also for every working adults, especially for athletes
and people who are working in prolonged hours. It is seen that sleeping for an
average of 6-8 hours can increase the cognitive functions, physical
performance, fight against diseases, our immunity , prevents depression and on
and on. But at the same time if there is not enough sleep got by an individual
, the situation can go from good to bad drastically. Sleep plays a critical
role in thinking and learning, lack of sleep kill the sex drive , decrease the
ability of the body to exert for intense workout(athletes),  It can cause aging  of skin, 
and leads to gaining of weight and can lead to depression and drug
abuse.

There was a time where the people used to live during the
day time and things that can be done only during the day. And they had good
sleep which saw reflected in their life having an average lifespan around
65-75. Though it’s not directly related to the hours of sleep but it did played
a major role. Money, fame, and competing with other in the world caused a major
turnover.  Due to the development of
technologies and live style, it’s now turning into a 24/7 active world. Where
everything can be done regardless of the time. And such a living lead
generation to decrease their overall mental and physical healt . Everything
from shopping  to night shift work to
preparing for professional tournaments lead to decrease in the hours of sleep
adopted by the people.

RESEARCH QUESTION

1.     What are the effects of
sleep on how the body functions?

2.     What are the importance’s of
sleep on mental/cognitive and physical growth in children’s?

3.     What are the result of
hormonal changes and its effect caused by sleep-deprivation?

4.     What negative effect of
working by decreasing the minimum time of sleeps required by body?

5.     Why is sleep  necessary for athlete’s ?

 

METHODOLOGY

To locate
and identify various articles for this research well known databases such as Google
scholar, PubMed were used. The keywords that were used to search the articles
were “effect of sleep on physical and mental/ cognitive performance “.This
research is mainly focused on the effect of sleep on physical performance of adults,
athletes and the effect of sleep on the growth of children and also the change
in mind set to these population. From the initial results the articles further
devaluated using the exclusion criteria. Around twelve articles were left which
after personal cross evaluation were further 
reduced to five articles. These five articles specifically mentioned the
effect of sleep on the physical attributes of athletes, working adults and the
growth of children .Since they met the eligibility criteria for the research,
they were included in this study.

 

FINDINGS

Sleeping can not only hinder the way
your cognitive functions by lacking reflex time, memory recollecting ability,
situation related thinking but also have a major physical developing problem
due to sleep deprivation as its very important for building muscle as body uses
most of the night (except when you are in REM sleep) to heal damage done to
your cells and tissues when you are awake and more metabolically active 1.sleep
provides us the best way to stay fit which is a great way to prevent many
serious disease (diabetes -2 even in skinny people, obesity, anxiety, and
more).

And in the case of children or people under
the age18, who are very much needed around 8-9 hours of sleep as they are
growing and their body and brain needs proper rest which is only obtained
during sleep. “Growth hormone is primarily secreted during deep
sleep,”2. Children who consistently sleep fewer than ten hours
a night before age 3 are three times more likely to have hyperactivity and
impulsivity problems by age 63 and  as
result ,there will be a great attention problem which is mandatory thing. sleeping
can also increase  the child’s energy
level/activity, which will be a great help in academic performance.

Employee that have to take night shift  like IT professionals ,C.A ,Doctors etc. will
have to sacrifice the time duration of their sleep to gain benefit but it
becomes counter-productive by by reducing job performance, because sleep
deprivation  reduces the our brain to
actively function with maximum ability, which can lead ways to taking in
prescription drugs. Such drug intake can result in different career threatening
disease. The more you get to sleep the more less depressed and more calm in
difficult situation you’ll be rather than being anxious .

The sleep deprivation can also cause
relationship distress. This  is because
during day time the hormone cortisol is produced in a less rate to maintain the
hormone during the time of sleep, so this cause the hormone level imbalance
that leads to moody and behavioural changes . Also other hormones like
leptin(appetite increase when sleep is decreased )4.

Elite athletes that give their heart and
soul to a sport and dedicate their whole live to a particular sport, even a
fraction of second could be very fatal. Sleep can give a hike in reaction time
by making our brain and cognitive function on point.  “Being awake for 22 hours straight can slow
your reaction time more than four drinks can.”5 Sleep can cause a
improvements in endurance, stamina, overall health for every individuals.  For every professional and high level
athletes ‘sleep’ is  an unavoidable,
crucial aspect that is to be followed so as to be in their in peak form during
their prime age .

 

CONCLUSION

Sleep is as important as eating, drinking, and a
shelter to live. The less value of sleep can be seen by human body functioning
in a counter-productive manner. The need to get a proper sleep is of very much
importance as to protect and increase immunity, and a great prevention for many
diseases like obesity, debates, and laziness. Proper sleep can have great
significance in a child’s growth from activeness to creativity, learning, thinking,
and also physical growth in the case of height and weight. Also the hormones
that are produced during sleep plays a major a role in a humans way of living
their life .because of the change in hormone level caused as result of sleep
deprivation there can be difference in live style like, behavioural change,
increased appetite. Working without getting enough sleep can effect in the
opposite way. It can lead to decreased performance and also lack of perfection
caused by sleeplessness. In the case of professional athletes’, sleep is on top
5 most important things to be considered because of the benefits sleep gives by
increasing stamina, endurance, reaction time. Sleep also play major role in
recovering the muscles.

 

REFERENCE

1.    Wiley Online Library. Accessed January
21, 2018. http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1002/rnj.107/abstract.

2.    “The Impact of Sleep Deprivation
on Hormones and Metabolism.” Accessed January 21, 2018. http://www.bing.com/cr?IG=477F890EA623433C87F08DBC822CFDDE=1357A2661CE86EA20941A9181D476F52=1=dm1q1SEgxyPKparDaS2aec3FsTeHLTaAoNOoZEMsYTs=1=http%3a%2f%2fwww.medscape.org%2fviewarticle%2f502825=DevEx,5064.1

3.    Fatiguescience. “5 areas sleep
has the greatest impact on athletic performance.” Fatigue Science Public
Website. September 11, 2017. Accessed January 21, 2018. https://www.fatiguescience.com/blog/5-ways-sleep-impacts-peak-athletic-performance/.

4.    Loria, Kevin. “20 surprising
effects that getting more sleep has on your mind and body.” Business
Insider. June 21, 2016. Accessed January 21, 2018. http://www.businessinsider.com/why-sleep-is-important-2016-6/#3-youll-be-able-to-build-muscle-more-easily-3.

5.    Voa. “Lack of Sleep Affects
Physical and Mental Performance.” VOA. October 30, 2009. Accessed January
21, 2018. https://www.voanews.com/a/a-13-2005-12-28-voa51/301463.html.

6.    Team, Brain And Spine. “What
Happens to Your Body When You Don’t Get Enough Sleep.” Health Essentials
from Cleveland Clinic. August 23, 2017. Accessed January 21, 2018. https://health.clevelandclinic.org/2015/09/happens-body-dont-get-enough-sleep/.

 

APPENDIX

 Published in a recent issue of the
foundation’s journal Sleep Health , providing the nine age-specific
categories and the appropriate hours of sleep needed

·      
Older adults, 65+ years: 7-8 hours

·      
Adults, 26-64 years: 7-9 hours

·      
Young adults, 18-25 years: 7-9 hours

·      
Teenagers, 14-17 years: 8-10 hours

·      
School-age children, 6-13 years: 9-11 hours

·      
Preschool children, 3-5 years: 10-13 hours

·      
Toddlers, 1-2 years: 11-14 hours

·      
Infants, 4-11 months: 12-15 hours

·      
New-borns, 0-3 months: 14-17 hours