The allied with any country or state.

The global political issue studied
and investigated in this engagement activity is the Mexican drug war. This
issue relates to unit 1: Non-state actors and Unit 4: interest-based conflict,
parties to the conflict (criminal syndicates), manifestation and development of
the IB politics course. This topic relates to non-state actors as the cartels
present in México do not have any significant political agenda and are not
allied with any country or state. Additionally, these cartels pose a threat to
the sovereignty of the Mexican states as the Mexican state’s inability to
resist and stop these cartels from producing and selling illegal narcotics.

Furthermore, the cartels immensely affect the Mexican state’s monopoly over the
use of violence as almost the whole of Mexico has been taken over by cartels
due to the current crisis of regional groupings of the cartels which require
multilateral resolutions.

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Furthermore, this political issue
also relates to interest-based conflict, parties to conflict and manifestation
of conflict as the Mexican cartels’ agenda is that their interests are as far
as manufacturing, producing and selling narcotics to other states for profit.

Being non-state actor’s cartels in Mexico are parties to conflict due to
ever-rising corruption in the Mexican state which causes unequal distribution
of wealth which in turn is a factor that plays a role in the high poverty rates
in Mexico. The manifestations of these cartels in Mexico have an impact on the
community in a variety of ways, they, cause a hazard for the locals, causes
regional conflict and has an effect on the international community. Therefore,
in order to gain a complete understanding of the international drug
trafficking, regional conflict, and its complications, it is critical to
understand the poor political system, poverty and development and unequal
distribution of wealth in this state that supports this political and global


This topic interests me as the
international community has almost completely shifted its concern to terrorism.

Although terrorism is a major global concern, the global drug trafficking and
countless deaths due to cartels in Mexico should be a priority of the
international community. When I attended the MUN (model united nations) as a
part of my engagement activity concerning this topic, I walked in with a
populist view through watching the popular TV show “Narcos” which
entails the infamous drug lord Pablo Escobar and his cartel. Due to this, I did
not fully understand the corrosive complications and issues that were caused because
of drugs in the Mexican state. However, I did know that it was a violent and
profit-driven non-state actor that had a major influence in the state.  MUN has inspired me to investigate the
political, cultural, economic and social impacts of the cartels in Mexico.

Furthermore, this topic interests me because the divide between the poor global
south and wealthy global north which shows a significant poverty and corruption
rate in the global south.








During the conference, I was part
of the RCC (recent crisis committee), where I had the opportunity to discuss
the social, political, economic and cultural impact on the state of Mexico due
to the selling and distribution of Narcotics, with delegates representing
countries such as France, USA, Germany, and Guatemala. I represented Germany in
this committee, and before attending the conference I had researched the
impacts of the drug trafficking in Mexico and how it has a negative effect on
the international community and the Mexican state itself. Socially, the high
rates of unemployment in the Mexican state and the unequal distribution of
money influences the poor peoples in Mexico to turn towards the Narcotics
trade. Furthermore, the working population is also pushed towards the cartels
and gangs as it is an easier way of making money and providing for the people
and their families. Due to this mentality of getting rich through illegal trade
of narcotics, it now becomes a trend amongst the youngsters in Mexico to join,
lead and even become millionaires from this illegal trade. This impact on the
youth of Mexico indicates the lower attendance rates at school and


because of the drug trade and most of the country being consumed by violence,
unlawful drug trafficking, and corruption; the political leaders in Mexico
don’t have any strong foothold inside the country. This happens because of
previous leaders who speak out in opposition to the cartels are either
assassinated or paid off. This keeps these political figures at arm’s reach for
the cartels to have complete control over the physical goods and unlawful
trafficking. the united states have certainly one of the biggest drug needs,
making the illicit drug trade within the U.S. extremely profitable for the
Mexican cartels. each year, it’s far expected that drug cartels earnings
approximately $35 billion to $45 billion USD a year promoting cannabis,
methamphetamines, cocaine, and heroin, growing the strength of drug lords and
cartels. it is tough to take down drug cartels because of corruption in the
police and judicial system and the ever-increasing demand for drugs.


The presence of the
military has induced the cartels to fight amongst themselves over territory and
drug shipments and with the Mexican military, ensuing in the deaths of hundreds
of innocent civilians caught within the gun battles that follow. The drug
conflict in Mexico has affected many bordering nations and has led to a blatant
disregard for human life. The United States has had troubles with border
violence due to increasing violence among drug cartels inside the northern
Mexican states.









The drug war evidently tried to rid the country of
illegal drugs and drug trafficking. Unfortunately, has been an appalling
failure and worsened the condition of the state. Mexico
consistently stays a major exporter of class A drugs and a significant
transshipment point for cocaine from Andean South America bound for the United
States. These class A drugs make it over the closely fortified US-Mexican
border more effortlessly than migrants searching for work within the US. The
ease of the drug cartels to kill, corrupt, and evade seizing of illegal
trafficking has grown aggressively as have their earnings. since the 1900s, the
United States has intervened covertly and openly to put into effect drug
prohibition south of the border. Mexico has not been able to invent their own
independent methods to drug use inside its very borders nor to global drug
trafficking. Prohibitionist drug policies have transformed Mexico into a
primary cultivator, exporter, and transshipment factor for illicit drugs that
supply the US marketplace.



Several issues of financial and political concerns began over a long period
of time to make Mexico a prime drug cultivating and exporting country. A crucial
component that allowed the drug trade in Mexico to no longer only develop and
continue to exist however to increase is the primary involvement of the Mexican
nation. The
immense capacity of the drug economy and the role it plays in preserving the
country’ financial needs, the insistent greed and corruption of the government
officials assured that prohibition may want to never absolutely be successful. At the same time as entire sections of the government, police, and
navy are on the cartel payroll, any other segment isn’t and is dedicated to
rooting out corruption and implementing prohibition. those inner contradictions
make a contribution to the chaos and violence of the drug conflict. Trying to approach and
prosecute drug lords or effective politicians directly involved in drug
trafficking is a risky task to undertake. Hundreds of murders of
Mexican and American drug-enforcement agents, governors, mayors, clergy,
citizens, legal professionals, judges, and journalists who have tried were












The improvement of narco-capitalism
in Mexico depended on the enforcement of the prohibition on both aspects of the
border. Drug manufacturing and smuggling under the dangerous conditions of
illegality creates hugely inflated costs for drugs. A Mexican farmer is paid
approximately thirty-six dollars for a pound of marijuana. Within the United
States of America, a pound of pot can be sold for 700 dollars. For outlaw
capitalists, illicit drugs are profitable commodities which have
properly-established domestic and worldwide markets. This guarantees that drug
cartels will count on numerous dangers to supply customers. The narco economic
system has a multiplier impact in the large variety of different jobs it
creates indirectly. The transportation, protection, communication, and banking
industries all provide the unlawful drug exchange. Drug profits are invested in
and have transformed rural villages from illiterate backwaters to modern towns
with Wi-Fi cafes and extravagant narco-palaces.

The “Mexico Peace Index,” launched
through the Institute for Economics and Peace (IEP), calculates the financial
effect of violence in Mexico at around $154 billion (2.12 trillion pesos) in
2015.That figure is equivalent to 19 percent of Mexico’s Gross Domestic Product
(GDP) — although it is down 38 percent from 2011, whilst drug-fueled violence
was at its peak, and the value of violence became calculated at C$213 billion
(2.92 trillion pesos). The IEP calculated those numbers by using estimating the
cost of crimes including murder, violent crime along with assault and robbery,
in addition to organized crime, and violence containment by the government. It
then included “direct costs” such as medical treatment;
“indirect costs” such as lost productivity; and the “multiplier
effect,” which describes “flow-on effects” of violence on an

The United Nations and several NGOs are
noticeably involved within the popular matters of illicit drugs. which will
combat drug wars and other drug-associated issues, the United Nations created
the United Nations office on drugs and Crime (UNODC) in 1997. The goal of the
UNODC is to fight illicit drugs and crimes all through the global community.

The UNODC has created numerous bodies and conventions that focus on more
specific problems associated with drugs and crime. The Commission on Narcotic
Drugs (CND) acts as a forum for nations to work collectively to create drug
guidelines within nations that would help end drug wars. The UN Convention
against Corruption (UNCAC) works to stop corruption inside the government and
in police forces. within the popular meeting resolution 55/25 in 2000, the UN
set up a convention known as the United Nations convention towards
Transnational Organized Crime. the focal point of this convention is to help
countries avoid drug-related organized crime which includes money laundering
and violence. The general assembly has additionally created, in 2010,
resolution 64/182 which specializes in solutions to end drug trafficking
throughout borders. several NGOs involved in this issue encompass EU Coalition
for just and effective Drug rules (ENCOD) and the South Caucasus office on
drugs and Crime (SCODC). ENCOD’s purpose is to train European nations about the
worldwide drug battle and its effects. The SCODC makes a specialty of ending
violence that results from organized crime.



with impunity the cartels do as they please, with no overall control and
consequence, the Mexican government has almost no strong foothold in their own
state. Advanced collaboration among US and Mexican intelligence and protection
services has resulted in several high-profile arrests and drug busts.

officers say 25 of the 37 drug traffickers on Calderón’s most wanted listing
were jailed, extradited to America or killed, despite the fact that not all of
those actions had been independently corroborated. greater than 110,000 tonnes
of cocaine was decommissioned and almost 180,000 hectares (444,790 acres) of
marijuana and poppies destroyed during Calderón’s term. The largest victory,
underneath Peña Nieto’s management, turned into the recapture, escape and another
recapture of Joaquín “El Chapo” Guzmán, kingpin of the Sinaloa cartel. The
crackdown and seizing of kingpins have gained praise from the media and US, but
it has performed little to reduce the violence or establish the rule of law. Yet the cartels continue to produce and traffic illicit
drugs across the border. The Mexican drug war is a prime example of how
non-state actors effect, challenge and destroy the state and the state
sovereignty, damage economy, culture, politics and the future generations.


Fundamentally, the economic, technological, cultural,
social and political effects of globalization have greatly
changed and increased the operational capabilities of violent non-state
actors. Majorly, their ability to use violence and force far away from
their locational base. In turn, violent non-state actors’ increased power
over the country and the government has allowed them to act in such a way as to
challenge the current international political and legal system. Lately, as it
revolves around the use of force by sovereign states despite the fact
that force is increasingly being used by violent non-state actors. During the
absence of institutional rules and procedures providing states with solutions
and ways to confront the threats posed by violent non-state actors states that
are effective have reacted and will continue to react to violent non-state
actors through the use of unilateral force, with major negative
problems for the international system to deal with.