The Economy of the 13 colonies; religion and colonization; the English & the Indians

Introduction

This discussion precisely focuses on early colonists in the American history. The Europeans founded and dominated most of the American current states; some through trade treaties and others through force. During this time they established their religion, education and business systems.

The 13 American colonies

New England colonies comprised of Maine State, Massachusetts, Rhode Island, Connecticut, New Hampshire and Vermont which were named by Captain John Smith in 1614 (Kennedy, Cohen and Bailey). The regions were solemnly meant for defense against the Indians especially after Pequot War and for preventing the Dutch forces from extending their territories beyond Hudson River Valley (Kennedy et al).

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The Middle American colonies ruled by Europeans included the New Jersey, New York, Delaware and Pennsylvania which were found in the year 1660, 1626, 1638 and 1682 respectively (Kennedy et al). They had variety of dominions within the tiny states and produced great men including William Penn, Peter Stuyvesant and Benjamin Franklin (Kennedy et al).

Maryland, one of the southern colonies was named after Sir George Calvert who convinced King Charles to allow him to build a colony that he would later call Maryland in America but he unfortunately died before building it and after converting from protestant to catholic (Kennedy et al).

Carolina, also a southern colony was named after the famous king Charles I after it was established in 1670 (Kennedy et al); however, as tobacco in Chesapeake begun to run out famers started migrating to Carolina giving birth to North Carolina. Years later, the North and South Carolina were officially separated in 1712 (Kennedy et al).

Virginia was conquered by King James I of England who took it over from Virginia Company and saved it from bankruptcy in the year 1624. (Kennedy et al); thereafter King James appointed top elite persons to be governors of the town.

The buffer colony which was Georgia was born and established in 1732 by James Oglethorpe, a famous respected soldier who was a trusted energetic reformer and who was named after King George II (Kennedy et al). The state was found to act as a buffer between the British colonies along the Atlantic and the Spanish Florida; considerably, Georgia was also the place where debtors would run to and have a second chance to prosper.

Economic activities and Religion

Agriculture was the most dominant economic activity in the 17th century among most colonial states (Kennedy et al).This was evident by the fact that tobacco in Chesapeake and Virginia was the staple product while in the middle colonies wheat was the staple product especially in New York which exported about 80,000 barrels of flowers per year (Kennedy et al).

On the other hand, fishing and whaling was booming especially in New England colonies where it was most prosperous; the triangular trade also flourished with European ships trade routes were connected to New England and West Indies via West coast of African where slaves were exchanged with molasses. Finally, slave trade also boomed as settlers periodically sold slaves for profits; during this time the leading enterprise was the lumbering industry which was extremely invested on by the British to aid in the reinforcement of their navy.

However, the 1733 molasses Act which imposed new taxation policies on West Indies contributed to a bribery revolution and smuggling in order to enable people to work under the law (Kennedy et al).

Presbyterian, Anglican Episcopal and Dutch Reformed churches were the major denomination found in the 13 American states and by 1775 there were two established churches; the Anglican and the Congregating (Kennedy et al).

These churches were allowed to receive tax but this didn’t have any impact since most Americans never worshiped in the church. The Anglican Church also called the Church of England finally became the main domination in most parts of New York, Georgia, Carolinas and Maryland; this success was attributed to conducting shorter, less wordy sermons. (Kennedy et al).

The English and the Indians

The English are referred to as the makers of America, in 1600s the population status of England was mushrooming and this boosted migrations. Majority of the middleclass people migrated to Chesapeake and other American states to work on plantations and almost a third of them worked as servants (Kennedy et al). Unhealthy conditions sent another estimated 40% individuals to death triggering a switch from white servant hood labor to black labor in late 1600s (Kennedy et al).

At the same time the climate and environment in New England was much healthier which propelled life expectancy to 70 years as reproduction rate drastically increased. Education was most valued by the Englanders resulting to establishment of Harvard College in the year 1636 (Kennedy et al).

The pueblos Indians were the first American corn growers, they lived in cubicle shaped dried mud houses called the pueblos, a Spanish word meaning a village (Kennedy et al). The Eastern Indians were also famers and grew corn, beans and squash; the Indians felt that nature was naturally filled up with many spirits and that nature was sacred (Kennedy et al).

In the years to follow, the Indians population reduced drastically due to natural calamities like diseases such as small pox outbreak which wiped out many of them while disagreements among the Indians community made them weak and susceptible to easy defeat. In addition to that in early 1711, the Tuscarora Indians were attacked and most of them sold into slavery (Kennedy et al).

Conclusion

It’s important to note that most of the states in America that were colonized must have had an economic importance while communities which had no usefulness like the Indians were attacked and driven out; the classical survival of the fittest.

Work Cited

Kennedy, David., Lizabeth, Cohen and Thomas, Bailey. The American Pageant, 13th

Ed. Guidebook: A Manual for Students, Vol. I: To 1877. New York: Wadsworth Publishing, 2005. Print.