The Token-Based authentication and certificate based authentication.

The database security community has developed multiple techniques
and approaches to ensure that there is data confidentiality, availability and
integrity. The principal database security concepts include authentication,
encryption, authorization and change tracking


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It is the process of identifying or confirming the
identity of a person. The method of confirming the identity of an individual
can be capitalized through validating their documents and through verifying the
authenticity of the digital certificate. Authentication involves testing the
validity of at least a specific identification. 
There are different types of identification, which includes
single-factor verification, multi-factor validation, two- factor authentication
and secure authentication. .
Most of the applications use two-factor authentication, in which two
independent factors are used to identify a user and at the same time two
factors should not share a common vulnerability. In most of the two-factor
authentication schemes passwords are used as the first factor and smart cards
or other encryption devices are used as the second factor. Apart from the
two-factor authentication there are many types of authentication methods like
biometric authentication, Token-Based authentication and certificate based
authentication. All these kinds of authentication play a
similar role of confirming the identity of a person. Authentication has helped
in confirming the identity of people and authenticity of products.



It is the progression of permitting or rejecting
admission to a secure system. Mostly, the computer safety schemes are based on
verification and authorization. It is the purpose of stipulating admits to
rights to assets interrelated to data safety. Authorization determines
what a user can do on the database. By authorization one can control to access
the data from unwanted users.  By
using the GRANT, DENY and REVOKE we can give authorization on database objects.
Authorization is vital in ensuring that security systems are kept secure and free
from interruption from intruders (Johnson& Smith, 2006).



Encryption is the progression of
indoctrinating posts and data in such a way that only the accredited
individuals can have access to the information or messages. The scheme of
encryption employs pseudo-random key generated by algorithms to prevent
intruders from assessing unauthorized data and messages. There are two
categories of encryption including symmetric key and public key. The difference
between symmetric key and the public key is that public key is free while the
symmetric key is private and it is purchasable. Authentication is also
performed using encryption. Decrypted key is required by to perform decryption
on the encryption data.




Change tracking:

The trivial clarification provides mechanisms
for applications. To ensure that implementation of the query for changes of
data and access to information is related to changes, it is essential for
application developers to implement custom change tracking. Applications
capitalize change tracking in determining the type of rows that have been
changed for a user table. To configure change tracking, there is the usage of
SQL Server management studio. To track changes, there is the need of enabling
change tracking and then would allow tables to be tracked within the