The Siberia, In Canada, the regional groups

The Inuit people, an indigenous people spread throughout the western hemisphere of the Arctic Circle- the Iñupiat, Yupik, and Aleut in Alaska, Inuvialuit in Canada, and Kalaallit in Greenland – are one of the most widespread people in the world. There are also groups in western parts of Siberia, In Canada, the regional groups are Nunatsiavut (Labrador), Nunavik (Quebec), Nunavut, and the Inuvialuit Settlement Region of the Northwest Territories. The word “Inuit” is a plural form of “Inuk” meaning “person”. The plural form of Inuit is either Inuit or Inuits.         The most important group in the Inuit culture is the family group. Family groups are typically made up of nuclear family, with the extended family such as grandparents and cousins also living in the community, with an average of 6-10 people. The traditional gender roles still stand in the house- the women have the responsibility of preparing the food and raising the children, while the men hunt. However, due to the Arctic’s harsh environment, the gender-based societal rules are flexible and adapt to the weather as needed. Gender is “situational and contextual, rather than the fixed binary more typical of Western societies.” There has also been speculation of a third gender recognized by the ancient Inuits, based on the role of polar bears in the Inuit life.According to the Parliament of Canada, 82% of Inuit men were involved in harvesting activities in 2000, with 63% of women completing the same tasks. If an Inuit man has no male children, he passes his hunting knowledge onto one of his daughters. While this standard practice is progressive, the traditionality of the culture is still very present. Divorce is considered disrespectful to the family of the woman and the community generally finds the fault in her, even if the reason for divorce was entirely legitimate. The domestic violence occurrence is much higher in Inuit communities than that of the general Canadian public, with an average of 498 domestic assaults against women and 58 on men reported yearly. For these reasons, the marriage rate is extremely low, and the Inuit have no official wedding ceremony specific to their culture. In 2004, Nunavut, the northernmost territory holding 49% of the Canadian Inuit population, had a violent crime rate eight times the Canadian national average.         There are a large number of disparities in health between the rest of the population and the Inuit. A lower life expectancy (68, as opposed to the Canadian life expectancy of 82 years) , and high infant mortality rates indicate this very strongly. Both Inuit men and women have a higher rate of smoking, sexually transmitted infections, and substance abuse. The inadequate education provided in the areas that the Inuit primarily populate has led to high numbers of teen pregnancies. As a result of unkind societal environments and their cyclic effects, fetal alcohol spectrum disorder (FASD), child sexual abuse, and unhealthy childhood development are all prevalent in the Inuit communities. The men, specifically, suffer from high rates of unmanaged stress and self-injury, often leading to suicide. The suicide rate for the Inuit population is 11 times that of the Canadian national average, and aboriginal men are five times more likely to commit suicide than the women. Along with health, the population of Inuits are overcrowded in housing, with little other options. The infrastructure is underdeveloped, and access to good medical care is limited. The largest employer in Nunavut, the Government of Nunavut, has a pay gap between their Inuit and non-Inuit employees by about $20,000 on average, with the Inuit workers receiving less. The unemployment rate in Nunavut has been continuously at least 5% higher for the Inuit than non-Inuit every year data has been collected.  But because the Inuit people are severely under-represented in the Canadian and United States governments, nothing is being done about these serious problems.         With the under-representation in governmental roles comes under-representation or misrepresentation in media and art. Television, movies, books- all of these things are routinely used to the disadvantage of the Inuit. For example, the more commonly used name “Eskimo”, of which the true origin is unknown, has been widely accepted to come from an Algonquin term meaning “eater of raw flesh”. The majority of the Inuit would not use this name to refer to themselves, and refuse it. While the possibility remains of a different origin, most Inuit would consider this offensive. The misappropriation of the Inuit culture has become a more pressing issue in Canada and the US over the past few decades. One example is a fashion collection titled “Inukt”, a made-up word mimicking the language of the Inuit, was released in 2012. The collection is based off of a a Westernized view of the Inuit in Canada, mixed in with random chief imagery from the Great Plains tribes. The use of Native iconography in art and fashion is becoming a larger and larger problem in regards to all tribes in North America and across the world. H’s fashion headdresses, a piece of clothing that holds incredible significance to several tribes, being worn at music festivals with no respect, the use of “tribal” patterns that were stolen by a large corporation from a weaver in Mexico who received no money for her original design, sports mascots that do nothing but encourage racial stereotypes- nobody but the rich, white population benefit from these. Stealing an artist’s designs or a piece of art that an entire culture respects is disrespectful and separates the non-native population from the native people even more. Wearing a “sexy Pocahontas” costume for Halloween while the real people that costume is based on suffer from centuries of discrimination is hypocritical at best, and racism at worst.         The mother language of all Inuit languages is Eskaleut, also known as Eskimaleut and Inuit-Aleut. The language family it is closest and most likely related to is the hypothetical Ural-Altaic family of Finland, Hungary, and Turkey. The two main branches are the Eastern and the Western. The Eastern language isn’t actually a branch but one language with different names based on the region and many small dialects. It spreads over Canada (where it is called Inuktitut), Alaska (Inupiaq), and Greenland (Kalaallisut). The Western branch is divided into three separate and distinct languages, all with local dialects- Central Alaskan Yup’ik, Pacific Gulf Yup’ik (located in Alaska), and Siberian Yup’ik (in Canada and Alaska). These languages and their dialects are incredibly complex and difficult to learn, but jffj. The Inuit have barely been influenced by any other aboriginal tribes, and the languages have changed very little since their origin due to the isolation that comes with living in the Arctic. As with most of the native tribes in North America, the Inuit have faced forced acculturation. The primary tool for the government doing this was, as with most other instances, education. aa While no exact date has been pinpointed, the estimated date of arrival on this continent for the Inuit is 4,000 years ago, which is much later than the other tribes of native people.