The social contract is an intentional arrangement whereby individuals, groups, government, as well as, socialites share mutual benefits. It is defined as an individual’s political roles as well as morals in regards to the agreement that is made by such individuals in establishing a society where they reside (Lessnoff, 1990). The theory has been discussed by various philosophers and scholars such as Hobbes and Rousseau, who have indicated that social contrasts have defined the community today. The aspect of gender and social contrast is also associated with the establishment of mutual welfare, as well as, protection in the world although it has faced criticism over the recent years (Lessnoff, 1990). Feminists, as well as, race-conscious philosophers have criticized the theory claiming that it fails to discuss the moral and political perspectives of life adequately. Thus, they feel that the contrasts have contributed to the subjugation and discrimination among the people of various ethnicities and gender. Social contrast is formed without the consent of the minority subject and has resulted in racial and gender inequalities. Therefore, the paper describes the sexual contrast perspective of Cole Pateman, as well as, the racial contrast of Charles Mills through the use of their texts.
According to Pateman, the social contrast is undermined by the sexual contrast that has led to the development of men’s rights over those of women. The latter is also said to provide men with the liberty to control the bodies of women because they are perceived to be inferior to them (Pateman, 1988). Women have suffered for a long time in history due to the patriarchy, as well as, forced servitude that emerge from men’s feeling of superiority over women. Nietzsche compares women to slaves whereby men are said and considered to be superior. They are also called masters whereas the women are subordinate to men thus, making them be viewed as slaves. However, Pateman says that women are slaves but not the real slaves because marriage makes women fewer slaves to men based on the sexual contrast.
The slavery of women comes with marriage contrasts, which are different from employment contrast because a woman is mandated to serve a man after marriage as it is seen as their duty and must fulfill in. Women are also expected to perform domestic roles. They are, in addition to their other duties, are not expected to question their husbands, who make them slaves to their desires. Additionally, women are denied their chance to exercise the freedom of speech although they are free thinkers thereby making them slaves in the male-dominated society but they are not seen as such to the husband’s perspective. The patriarchal relationships are in both private spheres, which are the marriages, as well as, public places such as the employment sectors. The theory has failed because it focuses on the public rather than the private areas thus, forgetting that both the public and private spheres are connected. Prostitution has been viewed by Pateman as a method of creating the gender imbalances between males and females (Pateman, 1988). It is also perceived as a kind of patriarchy since women have a right to choose what they want to do with their bodies weather it is in a positive or negative way, thus, this cannot be termed as slavery because it is a choice women have.
The imbalance has emerged because prostitutes required some form of protection from men in the year of 1885. In this case, the protection that the men offered made them be considered more superior to the women. Prostitution is termed as paid work in the contemporary world, which shows that it is much like slavery. Women are prohibited from working in public spheres thereby making them inferior to men. However, the inequality could be solved by establishing different terms of the contrast that would ensure that both parties are involved in contract signing thereby creating genuine equality in the state, as well as, individual levels that would limit the disputes among both genders. Social contrast traditions have led to failures in the dressing of sexual contrasts. They have also led to the current situation in which both the private, as well as, public areas once women agree to be associated with private patriarchy. It also reflects on the civil realms since both private, as well as, public patriarchy work hand in hand.
On the other hand, the arguments concerning racial contrast indicate that the modern infrastructure of the whites is operated under poor conditions due to the ignorance in the United States. It means that the white people fail to understand the fact that racism is prevalent in the world that they live in despite the fact that, it is said to be established. According to Mills, racial contrast is a tactical agreement that is made between the European countries to develop, promote as well as, maintain the white people’s superiority against other races in the world without their consent.
Mills provides information that no person from any ethnicity is transparent but becoming white men is guided by a feeling of superiority that overrules the judgment of the people in understanding the world as it is (Charles, 1997). For instance, the incident involving the invasion of Iraq shows that the Americans did not think about the predicaments in Iraq as a country that is faced with racism. Thus, it is evident that the white people do not recognize racism, which is not biological since they helped in building the racist erection among the people in different parts of the country and the world. In most cases, there is no mention of racism in the community because most people in politics, government and even philosophers are white people thus the issue is not given much consideration in this case.
Racism cannot be described not only as a social problem but also as a political system that has been built to corrupt the just ways of life since it involves segregation, as well as, prejudice (Charles, 1997). According to Mills, the psychoanalytic theory is the solution in ensuring that ignorance is eliminated, and people have become race-conscious to eliminate white privileges and challenges of race. In this case, it can be seen that although the whites are unconscious about their role in ending the dispute of racism, they have led to the division and gaps among people of various ethnic groups. It can be demonstrated by the fact that, the highest number of the prisoners is recorded among the African American in most prisons in the United States, which cannot be left to coincidence.
The laws in the land favor the majority groups and discriminate racially segregated groups because when the whites say justice they mean “just for us” (Charles, 1997). Thus, Mills suggests that there is an urgency and need to end the vice of racism among the people because it has led to the suffering of the people for many years and in continued in the modern era as well. Thus, it is essential to fight for racial justice, as well as, social democracy and class equity among the people. More campaign should be raised to highlight the struggle of racial minorities rather than burying the problems of the people to deal with the issue of race by embracing corrective justice. However, the people must be prepared to face the challenges that come with such changes because, the white people may increase their paranoia due to the fear of losing their positions and superiority over other people from other races since whites enjoy being on the top of the class system while keeping colored people in the bottom.
Carole Pateman and Charles Mills’ books, The Sexual Contrast (1988) and The Racial Contrast (1997) provide a critique on the racial and gender domination, as well as, the modern contrast traditions that have been silent on the issue. Based on the John Rawls’ ideas, the contrast theory has emerged as a key element in the western local traditions whereby gender justices have been neglected in addition to complete ignorance given to racial justice (Pateman & Mills, 2007).
A contrast from the literal point of view should ensure that all the parties involved agree with what is written or discussed, but the case of race and the sexual contrast is a different matter. This is because it has been developed by people with vested interest in self-superiority while not considering the needs of others (Cherry, 1996). For instance, the sexual contrast does not provide women with equal rights with men, who make them inferior and subject to slavery by engaging in a private patriarchy marriage. Additionally, women are charged with domestic roles, which have extended into the public domains where women do not participate in public affairs. Women in prostitution have also triggered the gender imbalance because they seek protection from men thus, giving males more power than women; making men once again take control over individuals and since it is women being “taken care” of makes the matter even worse making women look weak and fragile.
On the other hand, racial contrasts were initiated by the superior whites, who did not consider the needs of the minority groups. Thus, the minority African American races and the people of color are slaves of a social contrast that they did not take part in building while their superior counterparts have ignored its existence. Once again, African Americans are undermined and seen as less of a human as they are not given any part in any societal decisions or decisions on their personal lives for that matter. The white population do anything in their power to keep the African Americans from raising up in the class system and have so far succeeded as they were made slaves in history. To continue to modern times, African Americans are still treated unfairly and racism still exists. The minor parties in the contrast end up being more of slaves to the superior people, who do not even recognize the existence of the gap between the parties in both race and gender contrasts (Cherry, 1996). It has almost become a norm for African Americans being chosen to become slaves to whites and it was not recognized until later in history that this type of event is utterly and morally wrong.
The lack of recognition comes from the fact that the superior parties are contented with their positions, ignorance and the lack of consciousness of what is going on around them. Even though racism and gender inequality are said to have ended, they are still practiced through indirect methods thus, implying that they exist in the society today. Therefore, there is the need to deal with the contrasts by forming contrasts that are inclusive of all people for the common good and promotion of the welfare among them to impact the society positively. Silence does not look good in any community. Thus, activists and other philosophers should publish more work that campaigns are about the end of gender and racial prejudice among the people (Pateman & Mills, 2007). Works published by Mills and Pateman, as well as other famous philosophers Hobbes and Rousseau are just some of a few philosophers who stood for their beliefs and would like to see some change in the world they live in or changes for people in future generations Hence, the difference in beliefs between Mills and Charles are evident based on their famously well written journals.