The to work harder on preventing these

The importance of Nuclear capabilities was portrayed
since the cold war which was a landmark portraying power for states. In the
cold war era, the main two countries possessing nuclear capabilities that also
used the concept of M.A.D. and deterrence. This was one of the reasons that
these two countries in that era were framed in a “bipolar” world, because both
had nuclear capabilities that would destroy one another. Father of Neorealism
Kenneth Waltz stated that a Second strike capability is the ultimate deterrent,
allowing even medium- sized powers to ensure their long term survival.  In the book “Nuclear Weapons: The Balance of
Terror, the Quest for Peace” by A. J. C. Edwards, the
author claims that the possession of nuclear weapons strengthens a country’s political
power, in an offensive and defensive sense. In the offensive sense a nuclear
country may be able to influence, dominate or intimate other countries, whereas
in the defensive sense the role od nuclear weapons is likely to resists
attempts by other to influence, dominate or intimate the country. The author
also believes that major powers are in the quest of acquiring these weapons in
order to gain political momentum. This has been seen whereby major powers have
agreed to establish a nuclear deal with Iran in 2015, which in turn portrays
the threat Iran has posed on the international system.  According to Wilson Center nuclear
politics has forced the Obama administration to execute a difficult
multilateral political, diplomatic, and military balancing act in Middle East
and North Korea. These continuous proliferation, could force the US to work
harder on preventing these countries to further rise. According to Wilson center, Both Tehran and Pyongyang
are operating to develop nuclear capable ballistic missiles that might
threaten U.S. allies in the Middle East and Asia and possibly the continental
United States itself. This has
been highlighted in the recent United General Assembly 72nd session.
During the opening session of the UNGA, Secretary General, António Guterres underlined that stressing that “global anxieties about nuclear weapons are at the
highest level since the end of the Cold War.”, The UN chief listed the
most serious threats facing the world, including nuclear peril, terrorism,
unresolved conflicts and systematic violations of international humanitarian
law, and climate change. President Donald J. Trump in turn, called the Iran
deal regarding nuclear arsenals was an embarrassment. President Macron on the
other hand backed up the Iran deal that was reached in July 2015 that was
between Tehran and the six countries of Britain, China, France, Germany, Russia and the United States, naming it a solid and robust agreement that
validates that Iran will not build nuclear weapon. This came in opposition of
Trump’s skeptic views regarding the deal. Macron also called on the U.S. not to abandon the Iran
nuclear deal. He said “I don’t understand what the substitute plan is. If we
simply throw away this agreement, we can’t replace it”. He strongly emphasizes
on the fact that letting Iran free to develop nuclear weapons with no
international monitoring would definitely cause havoc. His position on Iran
falls in line with by four other world powers that are signatories to the deal;
The U.K, Germany, China and Russia. Sergey Lavrov, Minister of
Foreign Affairs of Russia  representing Russia in turn criticized the
U.S. for seeking to apply unilateral sanctions on Iran outside the UNSC,
describing these actions as illegitimate. He believes such U.S. measures
endangered the realization of the Iranian nuclear deal. He also further
described the deal “one of the most important factors in regional and
international stability.” Federica Mogherini, the
current High Representative of the European Union for Foreign Affairs and
Security Policy and Vice-President of the European Commission in the Juncker
Commission, stated that
Iran and major world powers are all accomplishing their promises. She stated
that there was no ned to renegotiate the agreement as President trump is
asking.  She believes that at this
crucial time where the world faces another nuclear crisis in North Korea,
international regimes cannot afford to disassemble the agreement with Iran,
which the International Atomic Energy Agency has now endorsed for the eighth
time to be in compliance of the accord. In parallel, Donald Tusk, European
Council, said at the United Nations General Assembly in New York whilst
representing the 28 EU countries that the 2015 agreement to prevent
Iran from acquiring nuclear weapons “is delivering more security for us all.”  According
to Wilson center, Ballistic missile defense has become a major source of
disagreement in U.S.-Russia relations. If this is left unresolved, it could
possibly reduce bilateral cooperation in scopes of mutual interest, including; continued
progress in nuclear arms control negotiations, counter-terrorism, cyber
security, and Afghanistan and Pakistan. They added “U.S. relations with Russia
will continue to be negatively influenced by the divide over the value of
nuclear weapons and their role in international politics. Forces such as
Russia’s conventional military decline have elevated the role of nuclear
weapons in its security calculus.” This can be seen in Russia’s continuous
program of modernizing and improving its nuclear arsenal.

Iran not only has been engaging in proxy wars across the
region, they have also tremendously worked on their nuclear program and
satellite capabilities. According to NATO review in an article called “The rise of Iran as a regional power: Shia empowerment and its limits”, explained that the recent lift of
sanction against Iran has played a pivotal role in the region and in increasing
Iran’s power. The nuclear deal arranged by Washington
allowed Iran more geopolitical reach whereby the unfrozen funds alone amount to
20–25% of Iran’s 2014 GDP according to estimates, and lifting the international sanctions regime
boosted the economy even more. According to BBC “Iran carries out ‘successful’ satellite launch”, stated that the Islamic republic has successfully tested a rocket that can
deliver satellites into orbit, and according to Reuters, stated that Iran’s release from sanctions “testifies to its new
relationship with the United States as it moves from pariah state to regional
power, a status that could come at the cost of Saudi Arabia, Washington’s chief
Arab ally”

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