TABLE copters etc. The quadcopters are the

TABLE OF CONTENTSDECLARATIONCERTIFICATIONACKNOWLEDGEMENTABSTRACTTABLE OF CONTENTSLIST OF FIGURESCHAPTER PAGE INTRODUCTION LITERATURE REVIEW INTRODUCTION BACKGROUND OF UAVs APPLICATIONS OF UAVs AUTONOMOUS SYSTEMS COMPONENTS IN AUTONOMOUS SYSTEMS (STATE ESTIMATION, CONTROL, MAPPING, PLANNING) METHODOLOGY MECHANICS (PD AND PID CONTROL) COMPONENTS ELECTRONICS COMPUTER VISION DEEP LEARNINGCHAPTER ONEINTRODUCTION BACKGROUND OF STUDYAn Unmanned Aerial Vehicle (UAV) is an aircraft without a human pilot aboard, uses aerodynamic forces to provide vehicle lift, can fly autonomously or be piloted remotely. UAVs are commonly used in the military for surveillance, reconnaissance, search and rescue and security patrol missions. Recently, UAVs have found applications in various commercial sectors; agriculture, surveying, photography, wildlife monitoring, security surveillance and others. UAVs are popularly referred to as drones. UAVs may be categorized based on mode of operation, physical design and application. Based on mode of operation; drones can be remotely controlled by a user or can work autonomously. There are many physical drone designs which are determined by the number of propellers ranging from 2 to as much as 8. Drones are used commercially and by the military.Unmanned Aerial Vehicles are sometimes called drones, copters etc. The quadcopters are the most common form of UAVs because of its four motors configuration and ease of use for flight.Surveillance is the close observation of a person, group of people, behaviors, activities, infrastructure, building etc for management or protection. There are different approaches to surveillance which includes GPS tracking, camera observation, and data mining, profiling, biometric surveillance. Surveillance is mostly done using stationary cameras which can be most times ineffective because it is limited to a fixed position. There are cases where mobility can be achieved by using a helicopter; but it is usually very expensive to implement.Unmanned Aerial Vehicles tends to be the ideal solution to the limitations faced by other surveillance methods. UAV surveillance is cheap, faster and has the ability to cover narrow and confined places where humans might not get access to. UAVs can be used in Oil & gas security, perimeter response, maritime defense, event security, traffic monitoring and a lot of other fields. Implementing a security surveillance system using autonomous quadcopters involves using machine learning algorithms to learn from data obtained from the surrounding to guide its operation. Security surveillance is carried out by the autonomous quadcopter using a camera attached to take frequent snapshots and upload to a server or stored to the UAV itself. The system should be seen as a form of dynamic CCTV system; with the advantage of covering more area for surveillance and inability to be tampered easily with by intruders.With the vast developments of computer technology in recent years there has been a sudden revolution in computing; getting closer to discovering true artificial intelligence, augmented reality, virtual reality, quantum computing etc. There is hope that using autonomous unmanned aerial vehicles in large scale applications by the government (surveillance, monitor traffic etc) or by individuals commercially would be a precious era to a revolution in technology.1.1 PROBLEM STATEMENTStationary cameras used for surveillance are susceptible to abuse and can be tampered with. Security is one of the major concern of any individual and over the years with the advancement of technology, different approaches has been made towards the protection of life and properties. One big question is if these systems are capable of securing lives and properties. Mobile surveillance units tend to have greater Although, the implementation of a mobile surveillance unit using unmanned aerial vehicles may not seem feasible in its entirety, it is an approach that is worth exploring.1.2 AIM AND OBJECTIVESThe aim of this project is to design and implement an unmanned aerial vehicle with autonomous navigation capability. The specific objectives of this research project are: Design and build a custom Unmanned Aerial Vehicle Implement a PID control algorithm into the UAV Incorporate autonomous navigation by using an onboard computing system for high level processing Implement communication between the UAV and a ground device or video coverage and performance analysis.1.3 METHODOLOGYThis research project has been divided into the five phases of the project management life cycle; project initiation, project planning, project execution, project monitoring and control, project closure. The division is deemed necessary because of the kind of task ahead. The following steps would be taken within the project planning, execution and monitoring and control: Project Planning: Research would be conducted through the use of internet sites, papers and text that cover a wide range of areas relating to control systems, autonomous systems, Unmanned Aerial Vehicles, Reinforcement/Machine learning and Computer Vision. Appropriate schematics and simulation of the intended solution would be developed during the project planning stage.  Project Execution: A frame made up of any light weight material would be used in the X-configuration for the Unmanned Aerial Vehicle. Motors would be attached to the ends of the frame. The flight controller would be placed precisely in the middle of the frame. The precise positioning of the components would determine the stability of the Aerial Vehicle during flight. A high level computing system would be housed with the flight controller at the middle of the frame Monitoring and control: Various tests would be carried put at post-execution to ensure that the UAV is able to perform satisfactorily.  Flight data would be logged by the high level computing system and its performance would be evaluated with time.1.4 SIGNIFICANCE OF STUDY1.5 SCOPE AND LIMITATIONS1.6 ORGNISATION OF THE STUDY CHAPTER 1 – INTRODUCTIONThe introduction provides an insight to the project; the problem that needs to be addressed is mentioned and also the aim of the project. It has set out quite a solid ground as to what the whole project is about. CHAPTER 2 – LITERATURE REVIEWThis chapter seeks to look at earlier works that are related to this project and seeks to provide a critical analysis to the research problem being investigated. CHAPTER 3 – METHODOLOGY This chapter explains the internal working of the proposed system mostly from a theoretical point of view. It aims to shed light on the nitty-gritty of any Unmanned Aerial Vehicle. The components and the approach towards execution of the project is also described here CHAPTER 4 – SYSTEM IMPLEMENTATION AND REVIEWThis chapter involves the system functions and implementation of the proposed system. It also covers the test that would be taken in measuring the efficiency of the proposed system. CHAPTER 5 – CONCLUSION AND RECOMMENDATIONThis chapter covers the summary, findings made during the research. It compares the project execution with the project plan and how well the project has gone to solve the initial stated problem.Chapter 5 also provides implications or practice and recommendations for future research within the same domain.CHAPTER 2LITERATURE REVIEW2.0 INTRODUCTIONAn Unmanned Aerial Vehicle (UAV) is generally an aircraft without a human operator onboard. A UAV is part of an Unmanned Aerial Systems (UAS) that includes; a UAV, a ground based controller and communication system between the UAV and the ground base. According to, an unmanned aerial vehicle is: a powered, aerial vehicle that does not carry a human operator uses aerodynamic forces to provide vehicle lift, can fly autonomously or piloted remotely, can be expendable or recoverable, and can carry a lethal or nonlethal payload. Ballistic or semibalistic vehicles, cruise missiles and artillery projectiles are not considered unmanned aerial vehicles.An unmanned aerial vehicle is commonly referred to as a drone or radio controlled (RC) aircraft2.1 HISTORICAL BACKGROUND OF UAVsThe first unmanned aerial vehicle was built during the World War I in 1916.  The UAV was dubbed Ruston Proctor Aerial Target which was to be used against the Zeppelins.  By September 12 of 1996, the Hewitt Sperry Automatic Airplane (also known as the flying bomb) made its first flight. Control of these earlier UAVs was done using gyroscope by Sperry Gyroscope Company.Edward M. Sorenson can be identified as the true inventor of the radio-controlled aircraft based on the United States patents. His invention was able to fly out of sight by using a display in the ground station to control its altitude, direction and revolution per minute (rpm) for speed control.The development of UAVs since the mid-1800s has seen a tremendous growth. The true value and capabilities of UAVs were noticed when the Isreali Air Force in 1982 was able to use unmanned vehicles alongside manned aircraft to destroy Syrian aircraft with minimal losses. The Isreal drones were used as electronic decoys and provided electronic jammers with real time video reconnaissance. Unmanned Aerial Vehicles have developed beyond military use; UAVs can now be used commercially and are becoming practical autonomous systems. Miniature UAVs that are mostly used by the public is currently the hottest area in aeronautical development at the present moment. The Federal Aviation Administration predicts that there would 7million units of UAVs by 2020. Over 700,000 UAV units has been estimated to have been shipped to the US in 2015 and the commercial drone industry is currently valued above $25billion by PwC global.2.2 APPLICATION OF UAVsAlthough Unmanned Aerial Vehicles are popularly used by the military, UAVs are mostly of common use by the public.According to New America, Nigeria is the only African country that has ever used a drone in its military. It is important to note that Nigeria does not currently develop Unmanned Aerial Vehicles domestically.Looking beyond the battlefield, UAVs can be used for a lot of several purposes that includes: Photography and filmmaking Law enforcement and security Surveillance, search and rescue Mining and mapping Wildlife conversation Construction Real Estate Applied Sciences DeliveryThe Compound Annual Growth Rate of commercial/civilian drones is expected to reach 19% by 2020 as compared to 5% growth rate in the military market.2.3 INNOVATIONS IN UAVsAlthough Unmanned Aerial Vehicles are designed to fly and be navigated through a ground station there are still other capabilities that have been implemented within their internal system. Hobbyists see the UAV as something fun to use but it is important to note that UAVs are being used by businesses to save cost and drive business growth. For instance, UAVs can cover distances more quickly and gather a lot of information during flight; these data can be used by in whatever form intended. Some ecommerce companies have been innovating on using UAVs to make deliveries with the general goal of reducing operational cost and delivery time. Facebook is currently experimenting the use of UAVs in beaming internet through earth in its Aquila project. In order for these drones to work effectively new ideas, techniques and problem solving approaches are implemented. Some of the technologies that are currently being equipped into UAVs are mentioned below: Motion TrackingMotion tracking or video tracking is the process of locating a moving or stationary object using a camera over a period of time. Motion tracking is mostly used in security and surveillance, traffic control, video editing etc. Motion tracking can be implemented in Unmanned Vehicles to track objects with little or no human control. There are two common approaches to motion tracking in UAVs; UAV to control tracking and object recognition approach. UAV to control tracking is easier to implement because it involves the UAV tracking a ground controller using GPS communications between the ground controller and the vehicle. Object recognition is more complex because it involves computer vision and other complex target representation algorithms such as mean shift tracking, contour tracking algorithms, kalman filter and particle filter. Motion tracking is implemented in commercial drones such as the DJI. Solar PowerLarge Unmanned Aerial Vehicles are being equipped with solar panels such as the one found in Facebook’s Aquila drone. The solar power source serves as an alternate source of power to recharge the solar cells of the UAV. Current battery source for commercial UAVs only last for few minutes; by coupling solar power source to the UAV it has  Obstacle AvoidanceUnmanned Aerial Vehicles can be implemented with control mechanisms that aim to compute an obstacle-free path of motion. The simplest method of implementing obstacle avoidance in any mechanical system is the use of an ultrasonic or infrared sensor. A UAV with such sensors are designed to provide a quick response to any detection of a rigid body. In a case where a specific obstacle has to be avoided; the camera would have to form image cues and depths by using complex computer vision algorithms.  Most obstacle avoidance algorithms are however flawed with the obstacle configuration. Auto Pilot / Autonomous NavigationAn autopilot allows an Unmanned Aerial Vehicle to fly autonomously to defined waypoints. The use of just Global Positioning System (GPS) in autonomous navigation of UAVs is proved to be highly inefficient especially indoors where GPS data tends to be inaccurate. Autonomous UAV features high speed visual control and state estimation, range perception, mapping and obstacle avoidance, resource constrained navigation, and visual servo control. Wifi CapabilitiesCommunication in Unmanned Aerial Vehicles needs to be done wirelessly, initial versions of commercial UAV started off with Radio Frequency (RF) communication. RF transmission is limited to 30Hz for low end transmitters and up to 3000GHz for high end transmitters. Most UAVs use 900MHz for RF transmission. It is important to note that the higher the transmission frequency, the more power is consumed. Most popular drones are now equipped with Wireless Fidelity (Wi-Fi) communication technology that allows for remote control through a mobile device. One advantage of using WiFi for communication is the ability to broadcast real-time videos from the UAV to the ground station. Most UAVs with wifi communication, works on an ultra high Radio Frequency (UHRF) at 2.4GHz with a limited transmission range of 600meters. 3D Mapping / ModelingUnmanned Aerial Vehicles are currently applied to 3D modeling in photogrammetry. Photogrammetry is simply the science of making measurement from photographs. 3D mapping can be done using Light Detection and Ranging (LIDAR) device that is usually mounted below the UAV. 3D mapping can be used in forestry management and planning, urban planning, archeology etc. Facial RecognitionUnmanned Aerial Vehicles can also be equipped with  Thermal Scanning2.4 REVIEW OF RELATED LITERATUREAdvances in UAV technology is taking place in the academic field, in the industry and also the open source community.2.4.1 DESIGN OF AN AUTONOMOUS QUADROTOR UAV FOR URBAN SEARCH AND RESCUEThe aim of this research project is to design an autonomous indoor quadrotor helicopter that is capable to be used in search and rescue operations. The craft was designed to transmit information about the environment wirelessly to a remote first response team.Fundamental design requirements were set for the search and rescue UAV, some of them are: Battery life of at least 10 minutes Hovering capability at 40-50% throttle Sensors for measuring altitude, odometry and relative distance from objects Autonomous take off, hover, traversal and landing Wireless connectivity Maximum total craft width of less than 30inches Protection on the propellers for safety Total mass of less than 1.5kg Nominal flight altitude of approximately 5-7ftThe quadrotor built was able to achieve stable indoor and outdoor light. The Hoverfly controller board was used as the flight controller for this project. The quadrotor had a Light Detection And Ranging (LIDAR) sensor that is used to measure the distance of the quadrotor from any object so as to avoid collision. 2.4.2 MODELLING, DESIGN AND EXPERIMENTAL STUDY FOR QUADCOPTER SYSTEM CONSTRUCTIONThe objective of this project is to build a fully functioning quadcopter sensor platform from scratch. The quadcopter was designed to be perfectly modular; new components should be able to get incorporated with ease and get backward compatible.The dynamics of a quadcopter in 3D space was covered extensively. The XBee Transceiver is chosen as the wireless link between the quadcopter platform and the base station. The light controller is built with a Single-Board RIO 9631 (sbRIO) and programmed with LabVIEW using an Ethernet cable.Various tests were taken on the components to measure their accuracy and also calibrate it as needed. A force vs torque relationship of the motor was taken with an Nm-RPM relationship curve. The Revolution Per Minute of the brushless motor was seen to vary linearly with the Pulse Width Modulated Signal applied to the Electronic Speed Controller. The Revolution per Minute of the brushless motor was measured using Hall Effect sensors. The Hall Effect sensors work on the principle that when a current moves through a conductive material the voltage across the material will be zero. In order to verify the effects of the Inertial Measurement Unit, a test bench was used with an inverted pendulum, shaft and an encoder.2.4.3 DESIGN, BUILD AND TEST AN UNMANNED AIR VEHICLEThis project analysis the aerodynamics, performance, stability and control of fixed wing unmanned aerial vehicles. The author made theoretical design of aircraft parameters, simulations in different conditions, assembly, testing of the flight controller, ground testing and flight testing.The UAV designed was able to achieve static and dynamic stability using its control systems that is put in place with the flight controller. The flight controller consisted of a microcontroller computer, receiver, transmitter and a virtual cockpit.Having a fixed wing based aircraft would not be appropriate or security surveillance because it requires a runway for takeoff or landing whereas a propeller based aircraft (such as a quadcopter) can take off at any point in time.2.4.4 AUTONOMOUS QUADCOPTER (KARTIKAGARWEL et. al, 2013)2.4.5 UNMANNED AERIAL VEHICLES – EMBEDDED CONTROL2. INTRODUCTION3.1 MECHANICSThe mechanics of any system encompasses how that system would react once subjected to force or displacement and the system’s effect on its environment. It is very important to understand the mechanics of any mechanical system.The design and development of UAVs (especially quadcopters) is seen to be very difficult because of its six degrees (three translational and three rotational) of freedom and only four independent inputs/rotor speeds. The resulting dynamics of such system is non-linear.Unlike ground vehicles where its operations are mostly limited to user inputs, UAVs still require a control mechanism to attain stabilization during flights. Stabilization is achieved by reading data from sensors such as accelerometers, gyros, GPS etc and using the sensor data with stabilization algorithms such as the PD control algorithms, PID control algorithms or Karman Filter algorithms. It is important to note that without control mechanisms in quadcopters there would be a wobbly kind of motion during flight due to the numerous forces acting upon the UAV.3.1.1 FLIGHT ORIENTATIONQuadcopters are symmetrical and have the ability to fly in either of two orientations/configurations i.e plus (+) or X orientation. In either of the two configurations, there should be four motors with two motors spinning in clockwise direction opposite to each other, and the other two spinning in a counter clockwise direction opposite to each other. Plus Flight Orientation X Flight Orientation3.1.2 FORCES3.1.2.1 THRUSTA quadcopter possesses four propellers attached to motors to support its movement. The propellers generate a force that is called the propeller thrust. The thrust is simply a function of the propeller dimensions and the RPM (Revolution per Minute) of the motors. The thrust possessed by the quadcopter as a whole is expressed as the sum of the forces possessed by each motor i.e. F1 + F2 + F3 + F4. The thrust force on each motor, Fthrust is equal to? K?_f w^2 where w is the angular velocity¬¬¬. GRAVITATIONAL FORCEThe Forces acting on each motor, i.e. gravitational force is approximately equal to F1 to Fn = 1/n mg where n equals to the number of motors i.e. 4, m is the total mass of the quadcopter and g is the acceleration due to gravity. The propeller thrust of the quadcopter at equilibrium equals to the gravitational force acting on the quadcopter.? K?_f w_1^2+ ? K?_f w_2^2+ ? K?_f w_3^2+ ? K?_f w_4^2 = mgThe thrust of each motor invariably has to be equal to  1/( n) mg; for a quadcopter:? K?_f w_n^2=  1/4 mgThe resultant force in this system is F = F1 + F2 + F3 + F4 – mgThe Resultant moment around the centre of mass is calculated by summing the forces exerted by the motors and the reactions of the motors due to the motors moving in the clockwise or anticlockwise direction.M =  F_1?r_1+F_2?r_2+F_3?r_3+F_4?r_4At equilibrium, the resultant force and moment equal to zero. When the resultant force and moment is not equal to zero then the quadcopter accelerates in the vertical or horizontal direction. DRAG As the quadcopter moves in air it also has to deal with a drag force that tends to move an object in its opposite direction while moving in air. The drag force, Fdrag is equal to  1/2???v^2?S_w?C_D. Where ? is the air density, v is the angular velocity at which the quadcopter moves, S_w is the reference area of the quadcopter and C_D is the drag coefficient. 3.1.3 CONTROL3.1.4 SIMULTANEOUS LOCALIZATION AND MAPPING (SLAM)3.2 ELECTRONICS & COMPONENTVarious components were chosen to be used to build the Unmanned Aerial Vehicle. Some of them are listed below: ATMega Microcontroller Brushless DC Motors Propellers and adapters Electronic Speed Controllers Li-ion Battery Raspberry Pi CameraOther components which are not included in the UAV build but were used in the active development of the UAV include: Breadboard USBasp AVR programmer Arduino Uno Microcontroller Li-ion Battery charger Digital Multimeter3.2.1 ELECTRONIC COMPONENTS DESCRIPTIONI. ATMEGA MICRONTROLLERII. BRUSHLESS DC MOTORSIII. PROPELLERS AND ADAPTERSIV. ELECTRONIC SPEED CONTROLLERSV. LI-ION BATTERYVI. RASPBERRY PIVII. CAMERA3.3 COMPUTER VISION