Surface surface acoustic waves (SAW), it has

Surface Acoustic Waves (SAW) is a sound wave that travels parallel to the surface of an elastic material. This type of device was first considered to be an electronic device back in the 1960s. Since that time, a vast array of devices has emerged with a wide range of applications. Now-a-day, acoustic waves are used for many purposes. These purposes includes the use in cosmetics to treat cellulite, fat reduction and body contouring as recent research has shown that acoustic waves are able to stimulate the metabolic processes to improve connective tissue elasticity. Also in recent development in the research of surface acoustic waves (SAW), it has been discovered that these sound waves are able to enhance white blood cells that contain naturally dyed strain in the resistance and killing of bacteria. The objective of this study was to prove whether or not this discovery was correct.            In this experiment, the researchers had obtained a low energied acoustic wave from New York. The researchers had first conducted a test to make sure that the acoustic waves device were not affected by the temperature during the delivery process. Mices with the breeding pair of CD18-deficient C57Bl/6 were provided. To start off the experiment, human neutrophils had to be isolated from human blood and mice neutrophils had to be separated from the bone marrows of the mice. The results for bacterial killing in a fibrin gel and within a biofilm was measured at the end of the experiment. Biofilms are thin, slimy films of bacteria that was adhered to a surface. They are constructed of multiple communities of bacteria and plays an important role against the resistance of infections on catheters, which are tubes inserted through a narrow opening into a body cavity for removing fluids, and other medical prosthetic devices. At the end of the experiment, the gel were submerged into 200 uL of a salty solution that had contain trypsin, which is a digestive enzyme that breaks down proteins in the small intestine, and cytochalasin D, which is a group of metabolites isolated from fungi that inhibit various cell processes. After being submerged, the bacteria started to form colonies upon to surface of the agar plates. The number of bacteria would be counted through the method of estimation. The researchers would first count how many bacteria are in one colony and then multiple that value by the total number of colonies.          The results has shown that the presence of surface acoustic waves (SAW) in human neutrophils has greatly improved the amount of bacteria killing of S. epidermidis from 70% to almost 100% of the 10^6 colony forming unit (CFU) in fibrin gel. There were many reasons that could account for this increase in the antibacterial activity. These reasons includes the presence of chemotaxis, which is a movement of a motile cell or organism in a direction corresponding to a gradient of increasing or decreasing concentration of a particular substance, and phagocytosis, which on the other hand is the ingestion of bacteria or other material by phagocytes and amoeboid protozoans. Through the fibrin gel, SAW helps to enhance the neutrophils chemotaxis. The enhancement of the neutrophils may be the key reason why the bacterial killing activity has increased. In conclusion, this study has drawn out that surface acoustic waves (SAW) is the key to the improvement of increased killing of the bacteria, S. epidermidis in fibrin gel due to the enhancement of neutrophils chemotaxis caused by SAW. From this it can be hypothesized that because of the similar mechanisms that the fibrin gel and biofilm shares, it means that the usage of surface acoustic waves in biofilm would create similar effects.