Steps by the Local and Military Officials to Prevent the Spread of Avian Flu in Okiwan

Recently, there have been qualms over the spread of Avian Flu among the local nationals in Okiwan. Avian Flu is a communicable disease that is commonly associated with birds, though it frequently develops other strains that human beings are not immune to(Capua et al., 2002; Lin et al., 2000; Stegeman et al., 2004; Tweed et al, 2004). So far, 238 cases of human infection by H5N1 have been established in 10 countries, with the largest numbers of infection being found in Indonesia, Thailand and Vietnam (Fouchier et al., 2004, Li et al., 2004; Peiris et al., 1999; Tran et al., 2004; Ungchusak, 2005; Yuen et al., 1998).

More than half of the established human cases have resulted to death of infected persons (Kurtz et al., 1996; Puzelliet al., 2005; Webster et al., 1981). The military officials have been identified as a group that is highly at risk of contacting the virus. Thus, a review of the steps that the local and military officials are taking in preventing avian flu is essential.

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So as to discuss this topic, I shall discuss; the issues that should be addressed in emergency management by use of examples; the steps that the local and military officials in Okiwan are taking; and make a conclusion that summarizes the key points discussed. I shall also give a final statement of opinion in the conclusion part.

There are three issues that must be considered while planning emergency management. These include: preparedness and communication; surveillance and detection; and response and containment (Liem & Lim, 2005)

Issue #1: Preparedness and Communication

This should entail:

Planning for the virulent disease.
Communicating duties and roles.
Making and storing antiviral drugs, vaccines and other medical tools.
Instituting distribution tactics for antiviral drugs and vaccines
Promoting technological knowledge together with developing countermeasures.

All government ranks, divisions of society and persons should be well set and there duties communicated.

Issue #2: Surveillance and Detection

This is done through the national and international organizations that offer progressive situational alertness with the aim of giving the earliest possible warning signs of disease outbreak, so as to guard the residents (Koopmans, 2004). These organizations do the following:

Ensure fast disclosure of outbreaks and global transparence.
Make use of surveillance in controlling the outbreak.

Issue #3: Response and Containment

These comprise of activities that control the spread of the disease amid humans and lessen the economic, social and security impacts of the disease. They include:

Controlling outbreaks.
Maintaining the economy.
Ensuring effectual risk awareness.
Seeking state medical and public health flow capacity.

Strategies/Recommendations in Regard to Okiwan

Issue #1: Preparedness and Communications

Residents and non residents will be educated on the threats of the disease.
Proposals and directions for immunizations and the allotment of anti-viral drugs have been developed.
Planning and management actions have been extended to other departments such as the Department of Health and Human Services (DHHS) and the Department of Agriculture.
The military officials have instituted a medical watch board that is accessible on the web, so as to offer the most recent information on the disease.
The military officials are coordinating directly with the DHHS so as to acquire influenza vaccine.
The officials are endeavoring to attain dependable sources of medical supply on stuff such as special protective tools

Since the disease will impact the personnel, it is vital that the local and military officials center planning efforts on the impending impact of an influenza endemic on its workers and the capacity to continue with crucial roles.

Issue #2: Surveillance and Detection

The local and military officials are constantly performing influenza surveillance in laboratories.
Policies have been constructed so as to enable detection means in the lowest stage.
Information mechanisms that are capable of tracing outbreak of the ailment in recruited forces have been put in place.

Issue #3: Response and Containment.

The local and military officials have laid down policies that are aimed at controlling the spread of the disease and lessening the economic, health, security, and communal impacts. Such policies include: clinical policies regarding the diagnosis, cure, and management of patients who have contracted the disease or those exposed to the virus.

Conclusion

In conclusion, there is no need for Okiwan residents to remain worried since the local and military officials have laid down adequate strategies to prevent the spread of the disease to the local nationals.

Definite proposals and directions for immunizations and the allotment of anti-viral drugs have been developed. Policies have been constructed so as to enable detection means in the lowest stage. Finally, the local and military officials have laid down policies that are aimed at controlling the spread of the disease and lessening the economic, health, security, and communal impacts.

References

Capua, I., Mutinelli, F. & Pozza, M.D. (2002). The 1999-2000 avian influenza (H7N1) epidemics in Italy: veterinary and human health implications. Acta Trop, 83(1), 7-11.

Fouchier, R.A., Schneeberger, P.M. & Rozendaal, F.W. (2004). Avian influenza A virus (H7N7) associated with human conjunctivitis and a fatal case of acute respiratory distress syndrome. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA, 101, 1356-61.

Koopmans, M., Wilbrink, B., Conyn, M. & Natrop, G. (2004). Transmission of H7N7 avian influenza A virus to human beings during a large outbreak in commercial poultry farms in the Netherlands. Lancet, 363(9409), 587-93.

Kurtz, J., Manvell, R.J. & Banks, J. (1996). Avian influenza virus isolated from a woman with conjunctivitis. Lancet, 348(9031), 901-2.

Li, K.S., Wang, J. & Smith, G.J. (2004). Genesis of a highly pathogenic and potentially pandemic H5N1 influenza virus in eastern Asia. Nature, 430, 209-13.

Liem, N.T. & Lim, W. (2005). Lack of H5N1 avian influenza transmission to hospital employees, Hanoi, 2004. Emerg Infect Dis, 11, 210-215.

Lin, Y.P., Shaw, M. & Gregory, V. (2000). Avian-to-human transmission of H9N2 subtype influenza A viruses: relationship between H9N2 and H5N1 human isolates. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA, 97(17), 9654-9658.

Peiris, M., Yuen, K.Y. & Leung, C.W. (1999) Human infection with influenza H9N2. Lancet, 354: 916-7.

Puzelli, S., Di Trani, L. & Fabiani, C. (2005). Serological analysis of serum samples from humans exposed to avian H7 influenza viruses in Italy between 1999 and 2003. J Infect Dis, 192(8), 1318-22.

Stegeman, A., Bouma, A. & Elbers, A.R. (2004). Avian influenza A virus (H7N7) epidemic in Netherlands in 2003: course of the epidemic and effectiveness of control measures. J Infect Dis, 190(12), 2088-95.

Tran, T.H., Nguyen, T.L. & Nguyen, T.D. (2004). Avian influenza A (H5N1) in 10 patients in Vietnam. N Engl J Med, 350, 1179-88.

Tweed, S.A., Skowronski, D.M. & David, S.T. (2004). Human illness from avian influenza H7N3, British Columbia. Emerg Infect Dis, 10(12), 2196-9.

Ungchusak, K., Auewarakul, P., Dowell, S.F. (2005). Probable person-to-person transmission of avian influenza A (H5N1). N Engl J Med, 352(4), 333-40.

Webster, R.G., Geraci, J. & Petursson, G. (1981). Conjunctivitis in human beings caused by influenza A virus of seals. N Engl J Med, 304(15), 911.

Yuen, K.Y., Chan, P.K. & Peiris, M. (1998). Clinical features and rapid viral diagnosis of human disease associated with avian influenza A H5N1 virus. Lancet, 351,467-471.