Stephen a graphite-powered reactor was built in

Hawking said, “I would like nuclear
fusion (technology) to become a practical power source. It would provide an
inexhaustible supply of energy, without pollution or global warming.” Nuclear
technology is technology that uses the nuclear reactions of atomic nuclei. In
the United States, after the Second World War, the so-called Atoms for Peace
project, which uses nuclear energy to produce electricity instead of atomic bombs,
was announced, and a commercial nuclear power plant was built in the United
States, the United Kingdom, and so on. After that, commercial nuclear power
plants and research reactors spread not only in France, Japan, Germany and Canada
but also in India and Korea. In nuclear power plants, large amounts of
radioactive materials are generated during fission, and large amounts of heat
are generated when these materials are collapsed. The Chernobyl accident in
1986 contaminated most areas of Europe with radioactivity, which has led many
countries in Western Europe to adopt a policy of not doing or reducing nuclear

The first example of using nuclear power
as a power source is a nuclear submarine. Nuclear power, which can get a lot of
energy from a small amount of fuel compared to fossil fuels, is considered to
be the most suitable power source for a submarine which must travel long times
under water. Then, in the 1950s, a graphite-powered reactor was built in
Britain, a boiling waterway and pressurized water reactor was built in the
United States, and nuclear power plants were built in France, Germany, Japan
and Korea. Power plants built in most countries except the UK use boiling water
reactors or pressurized water reactor type reactors.

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When the plan for the peaceful use of
nuclear energy was announced, governments and scientists from all over the
world proclaimed that nuclear energy would solve the energy problem of mankind
completely by supplying energy cheaply indefinitely. Scientists, however, knew that
the use of nuclear energy was accompanied by a great deal of risk, and that
many safety devices and highly trained specialists would need to be controlled.
It was also revealed that nuclear power generation is not economical compared
to thermal power generation due to safety problems, the disposal of radioactive
waste, and disposal of spent nuclear reactors. Thus, in the 1970s, the United
States had almost no plans to build a new nuclear power plant. On the other
hand, Japan, Korea, and Western Europe, which import most fossil fuels, have
moved to expand nuclear power. However, after a major nuclear accident in
Chernobyl in the former Soviet Union in April 1986, nuclear power has fallen
sharply not only in the United States but also in Western Europe. We will
continue to expand our nuclear power plants all over the world only in East
Asian countries including Korea and Japan.

This trend is changing as a global
consensus that climate change is a serious issue in the 2000s. In order to
prevent or mitigate climate change, nuclear power renaissance seemed to have
arrived as the claim that it needed to expand nuclear power generation that
does not release CO2. In the United States and Western Europe, there has been a
move to re-expand nuclear power plants, and there has been a dramatic increase
in life span of 20 years without shutting down after the life of an operating
reactor. The situation has changed again after the Fukushima nuclear accident
happened in March 2011, and in there is an increasing number of countries
review nuclear policy, Germany decided to completely shut down nuclear power
plants by 2022.

Nuclear power generation has a higher
initial construction cost than other power generation methods, but the cost of
electricity is the lowest through the long life of the power plant because the
fuel cost is much lower. The cost of power generation is calculated by
considering the fixed cost including the construction cost, the fuel cost and
the operation maintenance cost. The cost of nuclear power generation also
considers the cost of post-lifetime plant treatment, spent fuel treatment, and
radioactive waste disposal costs. In the case of nuclear power, the
construction cost is relatively high, but the fuel cost is low. If the
technology of the fast breeder reactor and fusion reactor is developed and put
into practical use in the future, it is not necessary to worry about depletion
of uranium since the uranium resources can be recycled. In addition, since
nuclear power generation does not release harmful substances such as carbon
dioxide, sulfurous gas, and nitrogen oxides from burning fossil fuel, it can
effectively remove ecosystem threat factors due to greenhouse effect or acid
rain. Since it is a technology-intensive power generation system in which
cutting-edge technologies should be integrated, there is an advantage that
development of science and related industries can be greatly promoted. However,
in spite of the advantages of nuclear power generation, radiation and radioactive
waste, which are inevitably generated in the development process, are extremely
toxic to the global environment and the human body. Safety accidents at nuclear
power plants can cause global disaster. The accident at the Chernobyl power
plant in the former Soviet Union and the accident at the Three Mile Island
Power Plant in Japan and the Fukushima Power Plant in Japan are examples of the
dangers of nuclear power generation. Therefore, the development of technology
for the safety management of nuclear power plants must be continued. Moreover,
since nuclear waste must be safely managed, disposed of and disposed of after
nuclear power generation, additional costs are incurred in installation of
essential safety devices, And the need to safely manage waste (spent fuel) for
a long period of time. All in all, the use of Nuclear Power is only beneficial,
if it is contained properly, and as time goes by and technology advances the
threat of Nuclear Power Plant spilling diminishes.