Schunk needs and feeling enhanced the child’s

Schunk (2008) discussed that
when parents allows the child to have input and autonomy on decision, provide
other choices with explaining the benefits and consequence and letting the
child know that they understand their needs and feeling enhanced the child’s
motivation. Thus, help increase intellectual development of the child. By
stimulating curiosity within the child other than feeding them answers when
struggling helps the child be motivated when faced with difficulties. “Recent
evidence suggests that parental expectations for achievement formed in the
early adolescence can predict educational plans and career choices 12 years
later” (Schunk, 2008). Even though such parenting techniques are used when
students are just a child, this method that elicited such motivation follows
them throughout their academic life as well as in future years. A study
conducted by Hoang (2007) found that students who perceived their parents as
authoritative had higher tendency to have higher desire to learn information or
master a new skill with high abilities – mastery goal oriented. “…parents who were
perceived to be more authoritative…had adolescents who tended to adopt goals
that reflect intrinsic motivations, such as improving their abilities, the
enjoyment of learning, and overcoming a challenge” (Gonzalez & Wolters,
2009). Gonzales and Wolters had similar findings where it was discussed that
students who view their parents as authoritative sees their engagement in
academic tasks as a result of their own values and their higher feelings of
autonomy in pursuing and maintaining their academic behaviors.


            A factor
that needs to be taken into consideration is culture while looking into
motivation and parenting style relating to academic achievement. In the study
done by Van Campen and Russel, they found that Asian parents practice “chiao
shun” as a parenting method where it emphasizes harmonious family relationship
and not the domination of the child. The strictness that reflects Asian parents
comes from the belief that control is not only necessary but a key role for
parents (Van Campen & Russell, 2010).

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Parenting style and Motivation regarding Academic Achievements

            Children brought up by authoritarian
parents exhibit lower motivation levels compared to children of authoritative
parents which may suggests that they are extrinsically motivated. Students who
were brought up by authoritarian parents may be motivated in classrooms but possessing
the motivation to achieve for their parents instead of their own desire.

According to the findings of Gonzalez and Wolters (2006), students who perceive
their parents to being authoritarian tend to report that they have much greater
focus in doing better than their peers. “…students who saw their parents as
strict and dictating adherence to a clear set of parent-defined rules tended to
report a greater focus on doing their math work in order to outperform others”
(Gonzalez & Wolters, 2006).


            Contrary to the above studies,
research done by Schunk (2008) implied parents who are too controlling can
reduce a child’s motivation. He clarified that children with authoritarian elicits
no desired intention to gain knowledge and learn due to the pressure of needing
to learn something they don’t desire and have no control of, they will be less
motivated to have the desire to actually learn it. Similar findings from
Kriegbaum et al. (2016) found that among parents and children who doesn’t share
objectives correlated with a less beneficial motivational profile and academic
achievement. Stated from the study, “…college students who perceive higher parental
directing have higher amotivation and avoidance goal orientations…” (Kreigbaum
et al., 2016, p. 14). Showing that parents and children who do not share
similar academic goals will result in student having decreased motivation, due
to high expectations from parents and the need to always do better. Extracted
from the study of Senk and Demir (2015) “Results of this study showed that the
adolescents who perceived their parents as authoritative had a relatively
higher level of optimism than those who perceived their parents as
authoritarian” (Senk & Demir, 2015), proves that the optimism or motivation
level and achievement are different in relation to different parenting style
that the child has been raised.    


and Neglectful Parenting and Motivation regarding Academic Achievements

            The following literature have shown
that permissive and neglectful parenting style have negative influences in
motivation and academic achievement among students raised in the two parenting
styles. In the Gonzalez and Wolterz (2009) study previously mentioned,
suggested that permissive parents have less adaptive motivation in their
children and students who perceive their parents with this style reported that
they are less concentrated in improving themselves or overcoming challenges
when difficulty is faced. It was concluded that the lack of encouragement or
display in encaging with their children from permissive parents displays low
motivation in academic achievement. Similar finding form Hoang (2007), in which
he conducted a study that displayed students raised by permissive parents had
less desire to learn something new. Boon (2007) stated that “…adolescents who
perceive neglectful parenting…had lower overall mastery and self-efficacy, and
high self-handicapping…”, he emphasized that the factors mentioned above are
caused by the lack of encouragement and support from parents as well as their
lack of appropriate parental academic involvement (Boon, 2007). According to
Kriegbaum et al. (2016), parents who aren’t involved in their children’s lives
will decrease intrinsic and extrinsic motivation levels (Kriegbaum et al.,

            In the study by Fox, Scholar and Timmerman, they stated
that children who perceived their parents to be neglectful will feel less
motivated to perform and leads to a state where they lack any motivation to
engage in something by lacking any competence or lacking in any value of the
activity. It was also resulted that there is a negative co-relation between
neglectful parents and intrinsic motivation in other words the more neglectful
the parents are the less intrinsically motivated the child was. Gonzalez and
Wolters (2009) gave explanation for this which is when students or children do
not expect their parents to be present in any school events or show interest in
their academics, the children will be less likely to try as hard for those
parents who actually do. The study conducted by Aasheim (2011) has two
objectives-  to combine the factors that
contribute to academic achievement identified in the literature and to unify
them under a single framework and second, to find out what factors are
perceived by students as relevant to their academic achievement and to
determine which are the most important. Results indicated that the most
important personal internal factors are related to motivation, commitment,
participation, and studying while the most important external factors are
support of family and friends.

The study by Hong &
Rowell (2013) discussed academic motivation. This study also indicated
motivational components that had been found to have an impact to student
learning, such as beliefs, goals, values, and intrinsic versus extrinsic
motivation. Academically motivated students tend to perceive school and
learning as valuable, like to learn, and enjoy learning-related activities
(Eccles & Wigfield, 2002; Zimmerman, 2000, 2008). Some more research
indicated that learning strategies and motivation have moderate explanatory
value regarding academic success and persistence (Coertjens,, 2012).

Discussed previously, culture affects and influences
parenting style and motivation regarding academic achievements. In the western
culture, it is expected from children to complete homework and are assigned
simple house chores. In the Chinese culture, children are expected to excel in
both academic and extra-curricular activities at the same time doing house
chores such as cleaning, cooking meals and looking after younger siblings.

Asian parents are believed and perceived to strict and this strictness is for
the protection of the children and not to restrain them. In the study of Bae
(2015), it is suggested that authoritarian parenting increases motivation in
Asian countries (Bae, 2015). In a similar finding done by Van Campen and
Russell (2010), it is found that authoritarian parenting can benefit children
as authoritative parenting does in relation to academics (Van Campen &
Russell, 2010).