School Programs and Parent Participation

The study of Evans-Whip et al. (2007) as well as Hogue et al. (2002) are instructive regarding the manner of conducting the research. Most of the procedures herein will be adopted from the study of Evans-whip et al. (2007). However the manner of assessing parent participation will be done in the same manner as that in the study by Hogue et al. (2002). Participants The participants in this study will be at least 20 students each from grades 7 to 9 in a middle-class public school and at least 20 students each from grades 7 to 9 in a middle-class private school.

Therefore, N=120 approximately. The schools will be chosen through accessibility to the researcher by means of proximity. However, the choice of students will be randomized. The purpose of the study is to benefit the general population of adolescent students and not a particular class. In order to better represent the population therefore, randomization will be a better process. Furthermore, the school may wish to protect its own interest and the tendering of student participants who have exemplary records will confound the study.

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In choosing the schools, only those which employ drug prevention programs will be accessed. Since the focus study is the interaction effect between the presence of the school program and parent participation, it is therefore necessary that the school have a drug prevention program. Due to time and financial constraints, only two schools will be studied. Therefore the set-up wherein there is parent participation but no school program will not be studied here. The first step in accessing the population is to obtain the permission of the director or principal of the school.

A letter will be drafted to the principal or director intoning the purpose of the study and the potential benefits that this study may provide to the school’s drug prevention program. Furthermore, the school will be assured anonymity in the discussion of the paper. Once this permission is secured, the permission of the teachers of the particular classes chosen for study will be obtained. They will be given the same information and assurance as the director. Upon approval of the director, the class to be studied will be determined through a draw-lots process.

A particular subject will be chosen by the draw then a particular time period then a particular teacher if there is more than one. This will determine the class to be studied per grade level. All the students in the class chosen will be asked to participate in the study regardless if they exceed 20 in number. However, students who submit incomplete questionnaires at the end of the time for answering said questionnaires will not be included in the participant pool. Procedure The actual administration of the research will be done inside the classroom wherein the subject chosen was supposed to be conducted.

Students are accustomed to answering surveys and tests inside the classroom and so they would be more receptive to answering the study questionnaire inside the classroom (Evans-Whip et al. 2007). Furthermore, the conduct of the survey during class time will lend it the authority of the school and lessen the probability of students opting not to participate. Students will be informed of the nature of the study and they will be assured that the research results will be used only for the purpose of this particular study and that their identities will remain anonymous.

The students will be given questionnaires to answer soliciting information pertaining to the topic of this research. The students will be informed that they may indicate their consent by signing on the indicated portion in the questionnaire. For those students who don’t wish to participate, they may either submit a blank questionnaire or leave the room before the time for filling up the questionnaire begins. As for those students who willingly participate in the research, they will be informed that if they indicate their e-mail addresses they will be sent the results of the study upon its completion.

Since the research involves the factor of parent participation, the home phone numbers of the students will also be obtained from the school, with the consent of the director or principal. This information is important because the parents will be contacted through phone within a week after the questionnaires have been returned. Evans-Whip et al. (2007) employed a similar process of obtaining data from the parents of students. This manner is more economical for the researcher and more convenient for the parent.

The purpose of the call will be to gather supporting information regarding parent participation in drug prevention for the benefit of the particular student in question. The director or principal of the school will be informed of this purpose from the moment of asking permission to conduct the study in the school. The provision of the contact details of the parents will therefore be assumed from the time that the director or principal consents to the study being conducted in the school.

In order to reinforce this consent, any parent-teacher association within the school will also be asked regarding their permission for such participation of their student and parent population. Letters will also be given to the participant students for them to hand to their parents. The students will be informed that these letters will inform their parents that they will receive a call from the researcher regarding the same topic and purpose that their questionnaires pertained to. Parents will not be obliged to answer the questions addressed to them.

Upon receipt of the call the parents may choose not to participate by so indicating. This will not lead to the disqualification of the student from the participant pool as the responses of the parents will only serve as supplementary information regarding parent participation. Furthermore, if both parents are present in the home it is only necessary that one parent actually answer the questions. Finally, the data will be coded and analyzed in order that a conclusion might be reached regarding the study at hand. Instrument

In the research a questionnaire will be used to solicit answers from the students (see Appendix). A checklist will be used to obtain yes or no answers from the students. This is suitable for the nature of the research since only factors such as the presence of positive parent participation, prevalence of drug use in the student population and prevalence of drug use by parents will be assessed. The frequency of actions or the depth of understanding are not necessary in coding for responses. As regards the questions which are not capable of being answered by yes or no, open-ended questions were used.

This allows the researcher to check whether or not the student has actually understood the nature of drug use and will also enable the researcher to assess any extraneous variables that might be present. The open-ended questions will also allow the researcher to fully understand the interaction of the different variables studied herein. Research Design As has been previously discussed there is one control variable, two independent variables and one dependent variable in this study. The control variable is the presence of the school drug prevention program.

The independent variables are the positive parent participation and negative parent participation. A parent who fails or abstains from discussing drug abuse with the student has no effect and so the student will be deemed to be subject only to the control variable. On the other hand, the dependent variable is the prevalence of drug abuse. As a result the data will be analyzed with one control group and two experimental groups in mind. The control group is where students are subjected only to a school drug prevention program.

The two experimental groups will be where the school program will be supplemented with either positive parent participation of negative parent participation. Analysis of Data Given the nature of the data to be obtained, an analysis of variance (ANOVA) will be employed to analyze the data obtained. If a significant effect is observed then the interaction effect between parent participation and the presence of a school program will be computed for. Whether or not the data is significant the participants, their school and their parents will be informed of the results of the study.

A debriefing session will be held in the same class that the study was conducted. The school will also be given a discussion of the results which will be distributed to the parents of the students. Finally, the researcher will discuss with the school the results of the study as well as the analysis of the data. Potential ways to improve the school’s program may also be discussed during the presentation of the findings of the study.

References

Boyd, S. J. , B. W. Plemons, R. P. Schwartz, J. L. Johnson & R. W.Pickens (1999), “The Relationship Between Parental History and Substance Use Severity in Drug Treatment Patients,” The American Journal on Addictions, 8, 15-23. Botvin, G. J. , E. Baker, L. Dusenbury, E. M. Botvin & T. Diaz (1995), “Long-term follow-up results of a randomized drug abuse prevention trial in a white middle-class population,” Journal of the American Medical Association, 273(14), 1106–1112. Calvani, S. , E. Guia, & J-L Lemahieu (1997), “Drug resistance rating: an innovative approach for measuring a country’s capacity to resist illegal drugs,” Third World Quarterly, 18(4), 659-672.