is a psychotic mental disorder characterized by disturbances in thinking, mood
and behaviour. The thinking disturbance is manifested by a distortions of
reality, sometimes with delusion and hallucination, accompanied by
fragmentation of association that results in characterises disturbances of
speech. The term schizophrenia was introduced by Eugen Bleuler. It affects
about 1% of the population and it affect both men and women but have an early
onset in male. There are five types of schizophrenia, they are:
(hebephrenic): with this schizophrenia the person behaviour is aimless and
disorganised. Their speech is rambling and incoherent. There is marked
flattening and inappropriateness of effect.
schizophrenia: This is the type where the person suffering from it has an
involving impairment of motor activity. With this type the person hold the same
position for hours or days
this is where the person has a well organised delusional though but with a high
level of awareness
untypical: this types do not fit into any of the categories.
Depending on the type of schizophrenia, symptoms can be categorise into
three groups. The first groups comprise of positive symptoms which are usually
categorized as pathological excess (Nevid & Rathus 2005). The positive
which is hearing and smelling, feeling or seeing something that is not there.
this is believing something completely even though others do not believe it
thinking: this finding it hard to concentrate and drifting from one idea to
controlled: the thoughts are vanishing or that they are not your own or being
taken over by someone’s else.
The negative symptom
includes loss of interest, energy and emotion. Feeling uncomfortable with other
The sign of
schizophrenia is different for everyone. Some of the signs can include the
1: seeing or hearing
something that isn’t there
2. a constant feeling of
3. a strange body
4. a change in personal
hygiene and appearance
6. a change in personality
7. the person may feel
agitated, lack of drive, social withdrawal
The causes of
schizophrenia are still unclear. Some theories about the cause of this disease
include: genetic, biology and the cognitive.
The genetic explanation of schizophrenia states that the disorder tends to
run in families and that a person inherits a tendency to develop the disease.
The biochemical explanation of schizophrenia is that it is
caused by changes in dopamine function in the brain. An excess of dopamine
causes the neurones that use dopamine to fire too often and therefore transmit
too many messages, overloading the system and causing the symptom of
The cognitive explanation suggest that schizophrenia is a result of faulty
information processing due to specific cognitive deficits. It claims that
schizophrenia sufferers have problems with metrarepresentation, which is
involved with giving us the ability to reflect upon our thoughts, behaviours
and feeling as well as giving us the sense of self awareness
Eating disorders: this a
disorder that is characterise by people starving themselves to be thin. People
with eating disorder have an intense fear of being fat, so they restrict their
food intake to the point of self starvation. Am going to talk about anorexia
nervosa which is a psychological disorder. People with anorexia starve themselves
of food for the intense fear of gaining weight or becoming fat even when they
are under weight. They throw- up or vomit, use of laxative what ever they eat
so they don’t put on weight. There are two types of anorexia, these are :
restricting type where by the person reduces the amount of food they take so as
to reduce weight. This type of anorexia is usually characterised by extreme
dieting using low calorie food and doing, excessive exercise
eating / purging type is whereby the eats large amount of food at one sitting
and purge or vomit that food by taking laxative.
The symptom and sign of anorexia
of anorexia may include the intense fear of weight gain or being fat even
though underweight, the resistance to maintain body weight at or above
minimally normal weight for age and height. The person may be disturbed about
undue influence of weight or shape on self–evaluation of low body weight and
loss of menstrual periods in girls and women post- puberty.
Some of the
warning sign of anorexia nervosa can include dramatic weight loss, preoccupation
with food, calories, fat gram and dieting. Refusal to eat certain types of
food, feeling anxious about gaining weight, giving excuses at meal times or
avoiding situations around food, excessive or rigorous exercise regime. The person
may be depressed and withdraw from usual friend and activities
The causes of anorexia nervosa
be caused by a mixture of environmental, genetic or biological history, social
influence and psychological factors.
environmental factors or social factors: The impacts of the slimness culture in
media that always strengthen thin individuals as perfect generalizations. The
fashion and media idea of being thin as the perfect body for example, ballet
dance and modelling. Also, when a person has been through some family and
childhood traumas like sexually abuse, conflict between family members and
stressful transition or life changes.
factors include Some physical attributes that may add to anorexia. Young ladies
may have obsessive compulsive personality that make it less demanding to stick
to strict weight control plans and swear off sustenance in spite of being
starving. They may have an extraordinary drive for perfectionism, making them
believe they’re never sufficiently thin. They may have elevated amounts of
tension and confine their eating to decrease it. Example of psychological
factors include having a negative body image and poor self-esteem.
biological causes are still not being validated but studies believed that genes
contribute for people to developed anorexia. Anorexia tend to run in families.
Therefore, if a mother or sister suffers from anorexia there is a likely hood
for other siblings to develop it. It is also common among identical twins than
with fraternal twins. You can also have if you have an abnormal biochemical
made up brain and nutritional deficiencies.