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Ryan KimShapiro English1/17/18Effects of Diet Soda    20% of the United States drank diet soda on a given day according to the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC). Despite this, many people do not actually understand the effects of diet soda on the human body. Diet soda has several negative effects on the human body including diabetes and weight gain and heart disease.One health concern of diet soda is that it can causes diseases such as type two diabetes. According to a study titled, “Consumption of artificially and sugar-sweetened beverages and incident type 2 diabetes in the Etude Épidémiologique auprès des femmes de la Mutuelle Generale de l’Education Nationale-European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition cohort” by Guy Fagherazzi, found that diet sodas which had artificial sweeteners increased the probability of people to get type two diabetes. The study found that of the 10, 604 people who drank fewer than 99 milliliters per week (about three fluid ounces), 252 of them were diagnosed with diabetes and the correlation between diabetes and the amount of artificially sweetened beverages consumed showed that of the 541 people who drank greater than 603 milliliters per week (about 20 fluid ounces), 34 of them were diagnosed with diabetes (Fagherazzi). The percent of people diagnosed with type two diabetes who drank fewer than three fluid ounces per week was about two percent and the percent of people who drank more than 20 ounces per week was about six percent.  This shows that aspartame can cause type two diabetes which can have negative effects on people’s average health. Diet sodas likely increase the prevalence of type two diabetes because they contain artificial sweeteners such as aspartame. These sweeteners could cause diabetes because of chemical reactions in the body such as triggering the production of more insulin due to it simulating sugar. Insulin is a chemical which helps regulate blood sugar. Another possible reason that these sweeteners cause diabetes is that they could reduce people’s sensitivity to sugar because sweeteners such as aspartame can be hundreds of times sweeter than sugar which could lead people to find sweeter and sweeter foods. Type two diabetes can lead to serious complications with organs such as the heart and eyes which reinforces that artificial sweeteners in diet sodas are not good for one’s health. Ultimately, if left untreated, diabetes can be lethal.    Diet soda can also cause weight gain despite it being advertised as a calorie free alternative to regular soda. According to a study titled, “Fueling the Obesity Epidemic? Artificially Sweetened Beverage Use and Long-term Weight Gain” by Sharon P. Fowler, discusses the correlation between weight gain and diet soda consumption. The study found that among exercise categories, estimates for participant’s BMI’s were 40% higher for those who reported consuming artificially sweetened beverages. This shows that the BMIs of people that consumed artificially sweetened beverages went up. This further shows that despite diet soda’s being marketed as healthy alternatives to soda, they can actually increase people’s weights. This could be true because artificial sweeteners may increase people’s appetite by failing to send neural signals that trigger the body to feel full leading to increased weight. People may also overestimate the amount of calories they consume because they believe that switching to a calorie free soda will compensate for this added consumption. The correlation between weight gain and consumption of artificially sweetened diet soda is concerning because marketing encourages dieters to consume diet soda which could increase their weight. This could further fuel the obesity epidemic in the United States. Ultimately, this could lead to a cycle where people who are overweight drink these diet sodas which causes more weight gain so they turn to diet sodas again.     Additionally, diet soda has been linked to cardiovascular disease. An article titled, “UI study finds diet drinks associated with heart trouble for older women” by UI Health Care Marketing and Communications, studies have found that diet soda can increase the risk of cardiovascular disease. It states, “Those who consume two or more a day are 30 percent more likely to have a cardiovascular event and 50 percent more likely to die from related disease”(UI). This shows that diet sodas significantly increase the risk of heart disease. This is likely because the chemicals found in diet sodas increase the amount of triglycerides, fat in your blood, in the body and lower HDL levels (good cholesterol) in the body which results in a buildup of material on the artery walls which can lead to heart disease.  It is also possible that people who drink diet sodas have other conditions which already are damaging to their health such as obesity. This is negative because heart disease leads to death. As a result the amount of people who die from heart disease will increase even though heart disease is already one of the leading causes of death in the United States.    These points show some of the effects of diet soda on the human body and how it can be negative. As diet sodas become more prevalent in society, we must look at the effects of them on our health and decide if their benefits outway their costs. Works Cited”Cholesterol and Heart Disease.” The Physicians Committee, 22 Jan. 2016, www.pcrm.org/health/health-topics/cholesterol-and-heart-disease. Fagherazzi, G, et al. “Consumption of Artificially and Sugar-Sweetened Beverages and Incident Type 2 Diabetes in the Etude Épidémiologique Auprès Des Femmes De La Mutuelle Generale De L’Education Nationale-European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition Cohort.” The American Journal of Clinical Nutrition., U.S. National Library of Medicine, Mar. 2013, www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23364017?report=abstract. Fowler, S P, et al. “Fueling the Obesity Epidemic? Artificially Sweetened Beverage Use and Long-Term Weight Gain.” Obesity (Silver Spring, Md.)., U.S. National Library ofMedicine, Aug. 2008, www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/18535548.Gardner, Amanda. “A Soda per Day May Raise Heart-Attack Risk.” CNN, Cable News Network, 12 Mar. 2012, thechart.blogs.cnn.com/2012/03/12/a-soda-per-day-may-raise-heart-attack-risk/?hpt=he_c2.”Insulin, Medicines, & Other Diabetes Treatments.” National Institute of Diabetes and Digestiveand Kidney Diseases, U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, 1 Nov. 2016, www.niddk.nih.gov/health-information/diabetes/overview/insulin-medicines-treatments. “National Center for Health Statistics.” Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Centers forDisease Control and Prevention, 11 Oct. 2012, www.cdc.gov/nchs/products/databriefs/db109.htm.”Triglycerides | MedlinePlus.” MedlinePlus Trusted Health Information for You, medlineplus.gov/triglycerides.html.”Type 2 Diabetes| Adult-Onset Diabetes | MedlinePlus.” MedlinePlus Trusted Health Information for You, medlineplus.gov/diabetestype2.html. “UI Study Finds Diet Drinks Associated with Heart Trouble for Older Women.” Iowa Now, University of Iowa, 19 Mar. 2015, now.uiowa.edu/2014/03/ui-study-finds-diet-drinks-associated-heart-trouble-older-women.