I have already spoke about the private sector to the current date and have identified that the 19th century had nothing like this i.e. gym facilities. The other two are the public and voluntary sectors. The voluntary sector is something which most clubs are run by, example Cricket, Hockey and Rugby Clubs. People who run these clubs have volunteered to do it and have their own leading role which they are in charge off, whether it is chairman, Finance officer or fixture secretary.
There are over 150,000 voluntary sports clubs in Britain with an estimate of around 1.5 million volunteers active in British sports. The public sector is a more retro organisational way which the 19th century used to rely on to play sports; however it is still a way which is very much used to this current date. In the 1930’s more parks and recreational playing areas were provided by the council which become ever more increasing in size which allowed and encouraged more people to participate in Sport. This is still the case for sport today, in that there are many parks and recreational grounds across England which let local clubs use their facilities, attracting people to participate in sport.
Individual sports now have their own national governing body for example the ECB with Cricket, RFU with Rugby and England Hockey. These set up a structure to future talent programmes, tournaments for the senior side which then allows national viewing on T.V where media promotes the sport in a detailed way. These national governing bodies get people of all ages involved in the sport and promote a healthy lifestyle.
Sport is funded through so many way’s here are some examples, National Government grants, sponsorships, local government grants, income from spectators, membership fees, club mark awards, media fees, merchandising and lottery funds and membership fees. The main ways local clubs are funded to this day are by lottery, national and government grants, and membership fees. For example if it was a Cricket club looking for a grant it would seek the ECB for a grant. Clubs can get these by doing lots for the community i.e. providing setups for males and females at all ages, coaching scheme programmes and entering national competition’s.
Clubs could also allow schools and county/regional games to be played on their facilities which boost the chance of them getting these types of grants. Funding can range from hundreds of thousands pounds to millions, depending on the future aim of people’s sport and how it wants to develop, i.e. new clubhouse. By developing the club with new facilities it can attract many new players ranging from all ages as people want to be involved in the club with the best facilities, resulting in more funding from membership fees. Another affective way of receiving extra funds is by having a club sports mark award. To get this, again a club needs to do as much as it can for the community and involve and attract kids to participating in sport. In addition to this they also need to address a club set of rules where Ethics and Values are intact, this help’s the up bringing and attitudes of youngsters.
These funding solution’s are major important to our local clubs and schools because it allows us to create a new generation of sports, for example giving equal opportunities to everyone so that know talent can be missed. It also occupies young children and takes them off the streets where they would be causing trouble in the neighbourhood. This can be effective enough that it can reduce the amount of crimes that are committed, so there is every reason why funding is so important in to local sports clubs.
Relating to Football, Funding was very different to the earlier 19th century era; very little money was produced in sports until it became professional. As the popularity of the sport was ever increasing, more and more people flooded to watch a Football match. This meant that special stadiums needed to be built, as these happened owners would charge supporters to enter the ground and a hope to attract the best players possible. ‘Broken time’ wages would go to players to make up their loss of earnings from work on that day. Many people were unhappy about this decision, mainly the upper class as they started to see the game crumble from the amateur spirit. A gentlemen’s club called ‘the Corinthians’ however refused to play for money and in cup competitions and even refused to take penalty and free-kicks as they believed know one could possibly commit a foul.
Funding is equal to all sports as Cricket, Hockey and Football clubs all get the same opportunities to develop their facilities. This is a great benefit to people as organisation’s like Sport England do not sway people’s decision’s to what sport they would rather you play by funding in it more. It gives a chance for any beginner wanting to play a sport, opportunity to do so, as a country we want to improve in all sports as much as we can.
The role of Education
Education In sport during the 1850’s and 1890’s was completely different to our way of physical education to day. For P.E lessons during this time there was know curricula or lesson plan to go by to occupy or educate the children. Children mainly did soldier training or physical training (PT) like endurance running, lifting heavy bags from one end to the other. This would be done to make Children fit enough to work and as were their many wars going on, prepare them for the physical demands these difficult times it can have upon them.
Physical Education in schools now is still developing and it is apart of the ‘Extra curriculum’ meaning that Children in all schools aged up to 16 must do an hour of PE a week. Most schools have planned lessons on what the school children shall be doing in their lessons, for example in the winter, one half of the term they shall do Rugby and the other half of the term they shall do Football. Examination, GCSE courses in PE have taken a huge preference too which many Children choose as part of their GCSE grades. For the course, Children are taught the muscles, bones of the body, health, diet and fitness.
The benefits by teaching children PE in schools are so they are able to get a job within the sporting industry because they enjoy being apart of sport, if they do not take an interest in any other core subjects like Maths and Science it is a great chance to do something you enjoy so much as a proper course. If a child understands the body properly they are able to prevent any injuries and increase their own performance within the sport they play. Extra things like learning about a healthy diet and what eating junk food can do to you helps raise the awareness of young children so they start eating healthily, again it comes down to lowering the percentage rate of obesity in the UK.
Schools are being funded millions of pounds to invest in new facilities like new sports halls or all weather astro-turf pitches, adding to this schools are now turning into sports colleges whereby they get a one of payment off 100,000 and an extra ï¿½120 per pupil for the next four years of the government. This sees partnerships with other schools, the local community and with private sector sponsors. Sport can also educate the attitudes of children for example learning the correct ethics and values for sport; sport plays an ever increasing role in the society we live in and improvement’s in local communities are always being made. By doing this in schools it assures the correct attitudes in children are bought in general life.
Influence of media and sponsorships- The impact of media and sponsorships Media and sponsorship influence sport in a major way and they both work in tandem to produce each other’s businesses. Television companies like Sky Sports spend millions of pounds trying to gain rights to view a sporting event, For example they spent 60million to broadcast the rights of England Cricket for the next four years. Sky also makes money by showing live games on pay-per-view or Premplus, for example to order premplus for the season you can pay 50 as a one of payment or 6 a game. Other sports like boxing, when they show a big fight the cost can range from around 17 depending on what day you order it on. Sky and other TV companies such as ITV and BBC contribute 1.6 billion to the Football leagues in sponsorships; if you add this and the extra money they spend trying to gain rights to exclusively show the events it adds up to around 2.6 billion. The interesting fact for this however is that 50% of this total goes to Football, these just shows by a clear margin what our most popular sport in the country is.
The rules of the game and the timings of the games are also effected by the television companies, for example for a champions league game they will broadcast it mid-week and at a peak time, which can often be quite late, this is so they can guarantee maximum viewers and not only that but they broadcast it too other countries in a different time zone so they are trying to cater for all viewers.
Extra rules have been changed and added for example a decision in Cricket can now be referred to the third umpire where he will analyse the appeal in detail like, ‘snick’o meter, Hawkeye or ultra motion cameras. Technology is playing an ever increasing role in many other sports like Rugby; a referee may often refer to another official to see if a try had been touched over the line. There advantages and disadvantages to this as it puts huge pressure on the umpires and takes away the tradition of the game. The advantages however are that you get clear and fair decision’s being made.