Rome’s men, which helped them in battle. The

Rome’s rival, Carthage, had many different strengths. They used different strategies and tactics to help them in battle. For example, after attacking lightly, the Carthaginian army attacked very harshly with many soldiers to help fight. The Carthaginian army lined up in a certain way, where 250 men were organized into 16 lines, which formed battalions of 4000 men, which helped them in battle. The Carthaginians also used elephants in battle, which scared the enemy’s men and horses. (https://www.ancient.eu/Carthaginian_Army/)Rome barely had enough land to provide for all the people who lived there. Thus, they fought to conquer more land between 204 and 188 BC. (http://brfencing.org/Rome/Roman_Expansion.html) Most Romans were farmers, who grew food that was sufficient for their family. When Rome expanded, farming was replaced with a more advanced way to obtain food. Roman expansion allowed Rome and Italy to trade goods with each other. By 200 BC, it was starting to become more difficult for small farmers to make a living, as the wars that farmers had to fight in wars that took place in distant places. As a result, farmers had to leave their farms for long periods of time, causing them to eventually be sold. “Wealthy Romans bought these farms and combined them into larger estates called latifundia.” (http://brfencing.org/) Latifundia were used to produce cash crops, that could be sold in order to make profit. Latifundia were managed by non-Roman slaves who were held captive by the Romans during the war.These changes seriously affected Roman society. “Those farmers who were forced to sell their land had to move to the cities, and the urban population rose rapidly in Italy after 200 CE.” (http://brfencing.org/) Therefore, Roman expansion affected city life as farmers were starting to cause overpopulation in Italy. There weren’t many available jobs, as slaves did unskilled work, so people had to beg or steal in order to make money, causing an increase in poverty and crime. This cause some Romans to become poorer, while others became wealthy.Julius Caesar became dictator of Rome. Caesar got married to Cornelia in 84 BC, which caused Sulla to become Caesar’s enemy, as Cornelia’s father and Sulla were political enemies. “Sulla ordered Caesar to divorce his wife or risk losing his property” (biography.com) in Rome. Caesar refused and went to serve in the military.  Eventually, Sulla convinced Caesar to allow him to return to Rome. Caesar began his political career after Sulla’s death. He studied philosophy, but was kidnapped by pirates while traveling. He convinced them to let him go, and ordered that a naval force attack and execute them. In 74 BC, Caesar organized an army and fought the King of Pontus, who waged war on Rome. All of these actions gave Caesar a higher political status. In 69 BC, Caesar was elected Quaestor, which is a Roman official. In 61 to 60 BC, Caesar was elected and served as governor of Spain. “Caesar maintained a close alliance with Pompey, which enabled him to get elected as consul, a powerful government position, in 59 BC.” (biography.com) Julius Caesar then formed a powerful alliance with Marcus Licinius Crassus, a Roman general and politician, and Pompey, which became known as the First Triumvirate. This alliance gave Caesar more power. Crassus, a leader who was known to be very wealthy, even offered Caesar financial and political support, which helped Caesar rise to power. Caesar later secured the governorship of Gaul, which allowed him to build a larger military and organize campaigns that would raise his political status. Between 58 and 50 BC, Caesar acquired the rest of Gaul. Caesar was continuously trying to expand Rome, and showed no pity to his opponents. As Caesar gained power, Pompey and Crassus got jealous, but they temporarily fixed things in 56 BC. In 49 BC, Caesar and Pompey fought in a civil war. In the end, Pompey was no match for Caesar, and Caesar pushed his enemies out of Italy and into Egypt. Pompey was killed there, and Caesar started an alliance with Cleopatra, an Egyptian queen. When Caesar returned to Rome, he became dictator of Rome for life. Caesar transformed the empire, relieving debt and increasing the size of the Senate and opening it up to better represent the Romans. He reorganized the construction of the Roman government, reformed the calendar, rebuilt Carthage and Corinth, granted citizenship to several foreigners, and even asked some of his defeated rivals to join him in the government. Caesar made sure to make his power and rule stronger. He filled the Senate with his allies, spoke first at assembly meetings, and put his face on Roman coins. (https://www.biography.com/people/julius-caesar-9192504)One year after Caesar became dictator, he was assassinated on March 15th, 44 BC by political rivals. Gaius Cassius Longinus and Marcus Junius Brutus, who called themselves “the liberators,” led the assassination. (https://www.biography.com/people/julius-caesar-9192504) In 44 BC, Caesar declared himself as a dictator for life. This turned the Senate against him, and the only resolution they came up with was to assassinate Caesar. (http://www.eyewitnesstohistory.com/caesar2.htm)Octavian was the first emperor of Rome. Julius Caesar was Octavian’s uncle and was later adopted by Caesar. In 42 BC, Octavian gained power and became known through Julius Caesar. Octavian insisted on being called “Caesar” and titled himself as “divi filius” – “son of the divine.” “He used the following years to strengthen his hold over western provinces.”(roman-empire.net)Antony, a Roman politician, and Octavian became the rulers of the Roman world In 27 BC, the Senate gave Octavian the title, “Augustus” – “the illustrious one.” (https://www.ancient.eu/augustus/) (http://www.roman-empire.net/emperors/augustus.html)