Reliability primarily focuses on the internal consistency and the repeatability of the variables within the research. On the other hand, validity centers on the correctness and appropriateness of the question that one intends to measure (Ghauri et al, 1995). According to Chisnall (1997), validity is generally considered and established through the relationship of the instrument to the content, criterion or construct that it attempts to measure. A lack of validity can lead to incorrect conclusion.
For the purpose of this study, the research used an instrument which aimed to measure the English grammar proficiency of students by having the former describe in writing what they see on the picture in the instrument provided. This allowed the participants to interpret what they see and freely write whatever comes into their mind. The results of their writing were then cross referenced to the rules of English grammar, hence attaining the objectives of the study. The primary data gathered would be analyzed in relation to the standard rules of English grammar.
The errors in writing would be pointed out and categorized so that a general claim could be made in regards to the common errors of ESL Chinese students based in Taipei, Taiwan. In relation with this, frequency averages were analyzed using the SPSS statistical software. 4. 1 Conclusion The major objective of the study is to identify the common grammar errors of ESL Chinese students in Taipei, Taiwan. Specifically, the research aims to: (1) Know the errors in terms of students’ subject and verb agreement; and (2) Know the errors in terms of the student’s use of the eight parts of speech.
In order to achieve these objectives, the research adopted the Qualitative Research Tradition employing the single case study approach. The data collection for the research is composed of the primary data collection and the secondary data collection. Consequently, the participants who were chosen are based on the criteria of age and number of years of study of English as Second Language. The participants that were chosen were between 18-21 years of age, and who have studied the English language for the span of 6-9 years.
The instrument used by the research in order to identify the common errors in English grammar of ESL Chinese students is composed of three sets of different figures in which the participants need to describe in a minimum of 50 words. These data would then be analyzed in relation to the standard rules of English grammar. The results and discussions part of the research were divided into the demographic factors of the participants and the grammatical errors that were found based on the four instruments that were presented to ten different students.
The first set of figures represents a train station, a beach and a living room with a television. The participants were asked to describe these images and significantly relate them to one another (see Appendix 1 to view the instrument). Participant A: “Today is holiday. I am going to Taitung station. Taitung’s the weather is so good that my relative take us to the beach. I am very happy because I like swimming. Today is very happy. Previous day weather is so bad because is rain. So I and other people playing PS2 and jack. I am very like to my relative home.
Is very happy”. Participant B: “Last Friday I went to my cousins home. I went Taitung Train Station with my parents in the morning. We arrive cousins home about 8 o’clock. Because the weather is good so we are went to the beach. But the weather be very bad in the afternoon. So we are went home. I with my parents live in my cousins home to tomorrow. Last Friday was a happy day! ” Participant C: “I went to Taitung play in lase friday. first day we went to the beach. My sister she swimed in the sea ,my parents eated water melon , Next day ,we went to my grandmother home.
We played TV game ,but I my the loser. I play that day of very happy”. Participant A committed errors are the following: lack of use of articles such as “Today is holiday”; improper use of verb tense such as “. Taitung’s the weather is so good that my relative take us to the beach”; and improper use of auxiliary verb such as “Previous day weather is so bad because is rain”. Participant B on the other hand, failed to use punctuation marks such as “Last Friday I went to my cousins home”.
The said participant also failed to use prepositions, such as “We arrive cousins home about 8 o’clock; improper use of verb tenses, such as “But the weather be very bad in the afternoon. So we are went home. ”; and improper use of auxiliary verbs, such as “Because the weather is good so we are went to the beach”. Participant C’s errors are the following: First is spelling: “… in lase friday”. Second error is with regard to capitalization, examples are: “lase friday. first day we went to the beach”. Improper use of verb tense: “my parents eated water melon”.
Lack of the use of punctuation: “Next day ,we went to my grandmother home”. The second set of figures is composed of two different figures of boys. The first boy appears to be skinny and is reading a book; while the other one appears to be stout and is holding a basket ball (see Appendix 2 to view the instrument). Participant D: “Mr. Browns have two sons. They’re call Tom and John. Tom is thin and look like wise. John is a little fat and strong. Tom like reads in the holiday. And John likes go to park play basketball with his friend.
They’re two different personality brother and they’re Mr. Browns feel prond sons. ” Participant E: “Tom and John they are the twin brothers , but they are unlike, Tom he is a good student, he is a first in his class, but he dent play ball, Join he is a player, he is basketball team captain, but he dont study, they are special. ” Participant F: “Tom and John is brother, but they are very different. They are different have surface, particularity, appeal…ext. Elder brother like study, but younger brother like play basketball”.