PUSHKAR public), monarchy(ruled by kings), oligarchy(rules of elite)



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            Democracy is a beautiful device
which ensures we shall be governed no better than we deserve. It is a powerful
network which gives the weaker same chance as the strong. It comes from the Greek word, demos which represents people and the suffix is derived from the Greek word kratos, meaning strength or power. Basically it is also considered as
the government of the people, by the people and for the people where the sovereign power resides in the
people as a whole, and is exercised either directly by them.
In modern era it vaguely denotes a
social state where everyone is enjoying the equal rights, without hereditary differences
of rank or privileges.

            Other forms of government does exist
like republic ( rights are inherent for the public), monarchy(ruled by kings),
oligarchy(rules of elite) where  all
the power is concentrated in the hands of one person or group of persons who
carry on the administration irrespective of people’s wishes. Even if those
types of Government are conducted in the interest of the people, since the
people have no direct connection with the administration, they can’t feel
satisfied under them so I will still advocate
democracy as the best form of government as it is a political power exercised
by people directly or indirectly through participation, competition, liberty and
the ultimate sovereignty lies in the hand of electorates. One of the greatest
example is recently from India where the recent election manifested a
revolutionary development which changed the fundamental discourse of Indian
politics as it represented a mandate which was against communal based, vendetta
based and dynasty based politics and finally MR Narendra Modi a tea seller in
childhood, got the opportunity to become the prime minister of one of the
biggest democratic country in the world. Another example is Nordic countries
which includes Denmark, Sweden, Norway and Finland. The Nordics cluster
at the top of tables in everything from economic competitiveness to social
health to happiness. They have avoided both southern Europe’s economic
sclerosis and America’s extreme inequality and the reasons are they have strong
public sector to increase the Scandinavia model of bureaucracy. They have very
less corruption ratio and strong work ethics. They pay higher taxes but the
regulation in other fields are certainly very low as the education is free,
medication doesn’t cost bags full of money. So it provides blue print of
how to reform the public sector, making the state far more efficient and responsive.

            In recent year, institutions
which were meant to provide models for new democracies have come to seem
outdated and dysfunctional in established ones. Democracy is facing
a difficult time where autocrats have been driven out of office, their
opponents have mostly failed to create viable democratic regimes. Many nominal
democracies have slid towards autocracy, maintaining the outward appearance of
democracy through elections, but without the rights and institutions that are
equally important aspects of a functioning democratic system. Even in well-established
democracies, flaws in the system are clearly visible and disillusion with
politics is rife. Knowing the human nature and the political process, full democracy beyond
the smallest group size is not easy to handle. The working of democracy is based on certain postulates where people
must be politically awakened and the leaders should
be virtuous and committed to the welfare of the majority. Probing should be
placed upon the people in power; independent judiciary should check the
implementation of the laws which aren’t serving the interests of the public and
against the Constitutional Law. Similarly, free press should highlight the
wrong steps chosen by the Government. Apart from these the nation should be
unified where there should be no tendency in the public to disassociate
themselves from the nation. So there are still many challenges hanging around
the democracy which are tweedism, economic inequality, gerrymandering, candidate
choice, active citizenship. Even though Democracy has flaws, still it is a
way by which the people can bloodlessly turn out leaders but the democratic
process will only work with the consent of the leaders.



            It is an institutional corruption where there is a systemic and strategic
influence which is legal, or even currently
ethical, that undermines the institution’s effectiveness by diverting it from
its purpose or weakening its ability to achieve its purpose, It is
system where decent people come to the city to do right thing for themselves
bent to do things, the tweeds demand because that’s the only way to survive. It
is a corruption caused by the basic economic equality that we have allowed to
evolve in the system. If we neutralize tweedism we can crack the corruption marginally.
We can participate in the silent protests built on the tradition of Selma to Montgomery marches in 1965 organized
by nonviolent activists to exercise their constitutional right to vote, in
defiance of segregationist repression, and were part of a broader voting rights
movement underway in Selma and throughout the American South.

Economic inequality

ex- US president Thomas Jefferson rightly notified that the end of
democracy will occur when government will be in the hand of moneyed
incorporation. The biggest funders in the general elections provided a big fund
to the government to run the election campaigns. Top 100 families gave the
amount which was equal to bottom 4.75 million families so these 0.02 % American
citizens dominate in electing the candidates and they rejoice the rights
indirectly after the election results. Democracy carry the idea of mixed
economy and especially after the liberalisation era socialism is the need of
the hour. Every stake holder must be involved for the higher development. It
has been noticed that Public-private partnership (PPP model) is very successful. Elections are carnival of
democracy so there must be some guidelines from the election commission to ensure
the transparency. The administrative reform commission suggested that every
party should under the ambit of RTI and the funding should be anonymous and
limited. To neutralize the
economy inequality the government can take certain steps like increase the
minimum wage, reformation in the taxation system, provide oversight of
financial market, equality in keeping the words to consider everyone equal and
we can emerge as a welfare state.


            Democracy is also corrupted by
gerrymandering which is the practice of drawing constituency boundaries to
entrench the power of incumbents. This encourages extremism, because
politicians have to appeal only to the party faithful, and in effect
disenfranchises large numbers of voters. For example Ex US president Christopher Ingram wrote an article “How to steal an election: a visual
guide” showing the partition gerrymandering where map drawing
process is intentionally used to benefit the ruling parties aiming to win more
seats in the legislature. It is considered as a crime against geography. So the
government need to stop this practise for their own sake of seats.

Candidate choice

            Monopoly of being into the power bring
leaders to follow the wrong paths of corruption and other wrong assaults against
the public. Voters aren’t well informed about the candidates as they think the
impact of their vote on the final result is so low that we don’t have the
incentive to know what we need to know to elect a good candidate. To choose
fair candidates in the election there should be certain steps taken by the
election commission which includes some eligibility criteria, digitalization
and e governance, RTI regulations, strict laws etc. Democracy can’t succeed unless
voters are prepared to choose the candidates wisely so the real safeguard for
the democracy is education. Education
is an important aspect as illiterate electorates are misled deliberately to
rejoice the benefits which may include fake signatures, wrong information, fake
money transfers etc. The government should use incentives like providing mid-day
meal, transportation facilities, providing free resources to create platform
for the students to get educated. As the time advances, the knowledge with the
literacy world with come out from the personality based politics and start
polarizing towards agenda and development based politics.


            It is necessary that challenges to democracy
should be properly understood and tackled. For this also active interest of the
people is necessary. In recent decade this has been increasingly influential
throughout the world. The
appreciation of active citizens has increased on the European level. In “the
Civil Society” the expectations of organisations set up by citizens are very
high. Politics is becoming more interested in effective non-governmental
organisations and active citizens. Slowly the voting percentile is increasing and it has reached 61 % from
mere 32 and slowly it will keep increasing in the democratic system by
rewarding people. The active participation of youth in the politics is still a
positive idea. Rather than making punitive laws for the voting compulsion which
may lead us to the horrific colonial legacy, we should make it an involving
process. The government can issue free coupons or some other exciting privileges
to attract the voters and the press can be used beautifully to bring the voters
in the election. The voting system should be more convenient and instead of
standing in queue, the government can provide internet facilities to have
inclusive and fragmenting effect and elections can be commenced on weekends to
involve more numbers of active citizens.



            For a free and democratic nation to work, a
politician must, in the first place and right off the bat, in an honest
fashion, convince the electorate that democracy is what they need, if they are
to get what they want — optimal human conditions for the medium term.
No one within a
democracy is to have special privileges; it, as a system, is to accommodate all
groups of people, no matter how unalike they may be, one to the other.

            Thus, democracy, as past experience
will demonstrate, works only where the population shares, fundamentally, the
same goals and aspirations. we must continue to hold the ideal high and see to it that its trappings
are securely fixed in place as, well — as a bulwark, such as it is, against
tyrannical rule




Citizenship on the move — new priorities for competence-based education
by Nils-Eyk
Zimmermann on 31/05/2017


How to steal an election: a visual guide By Christopher
Ingraham March 1, 2015 – The Washington post

Democracy by
Peter Landry April 1999 in constitution


Deliberative politics
by Stephen Macedo 1999 in Oxford University Press