This document looks at the present day state of Cyprus, the largest of the Mediterranean island after Sicily and Sardinia, with its split into two communities, each at odds with the other. The history of the island and in particular of this relatively modern occurrence are considered from various points of view including that of outsiders such as the United States of America, the United Nations, the wider European community, in particular the members of the European economic community as well as the individual countries of Greece and Turkey. Introduction
Cyprus is an island in the Mediterranean inhabited in the main by two ethnic groups; Greek Cypriots and Turkish Cypriots, although there are a small number of others including members of the Maronite and Armenian Apostolic churches. In 1960, the groups were brought together politically as the Republic of Cyprus, but by the beginning of 1963 conflicts had erupted between Greek and Turkish Cypriots that have not been resolved to this day. In the international agenda, Cypriot problems started 35 years ago in 1974 when the ruling junta in Athens, opposed as they were to Archbishop Makarios, named Nicos Sampson as president.
He, a Greek Cypriot right-winger, had a reputation as a Turk fighter. This appointment provoked Turkey to intervene under the Treaty of Guarantee by which Greece, Turkey and Britain were empowered to act if the communal balance on the island were seen to be disturbed. Britain, who have bases on the island were also inclined to intervene to intervene, but were persuaded to stay out of the matter by the then U. S. Secretary of State Henry Kissinger. Under the terms of the treaty, the two countries should have used any necessary force to counter the coup and so re-establish the legally elected government of the island.
Because Britain did not act Turkey quickly occupied the northern 37 percent of the island forcing Greek Cypriots to leave their homes and move south, and later putting pressure on Turkish Cypriots to move north. Since that time none of the solution proposals and processes that have taken place between the two sides have been able to bring about an established peace. Instead the island has not only been separated by clashing ethnical, cultural, linguistically or political conflicts, but also by borders that separate the two communities into north and south sections.
Turkish Cypriots are held in the north section of the island while the Greek Cypriots are placed in the south section of the island. Growing up in an island and not knowing the other side, is like not knowing other half of your body. Although, Cypriots are in some ways one community, living as they all do in a relatively confined space, isolated by the sea from other groups, the political dimensions and nationalist conflicts have torn them apart. By 2001 the political climate had started to change in Cyprus, which why it made me more motivated to make my research project upon this conflict study of Cyprus.
As the Cyprus problem has been on the international political agenda for more than three decades, it is possible to do great research on the subject and link it easily to my previous studies in international relations. In order to achieve a successful research report on the concerned title, the main focus should be on the selected objectives, which mainly indicates concentration on the origin of the problem and the current position. By careful analysis of these the future may be clearer. There are many other issues related to be discussed further and these will be examined throughout the project.
Generally, the historical background will take us to the origin of the problem and the causes of the division, meaning that all events took place between 1955 till 1974 will address the cause of the problem. In addition, from 1974 until today events such as United Nation making resolutions for a peaceful settlement in Cyprus and examination of the reasons for failure of such resolutions will reveal the path that North and South Cyprus went through until today. In other sections, major theories and approaches from both sides will be taken in account to analyze each perspective much more clearly.