People with down syndrome have been treated quite terribly through time. One of the reasons people were mistreated and outcast was because they had different appearances than others. Their eyes have epicanthal folds and are more almond shaped and their irises may have Brushfield spots. The bridge of the nose smaller making it appear to be a button nose. The neck may be thicker and have excess flesh, this is one of the traits that can be seen on an ultrasound. All around people with down syndrome tend to have a lower than normal muscle tone. All people with down syndrome have an additional copy of chromosome 21 existent in a great majority of their cells. The characteristics of down syndrome are caused by the excess genetic that modifies the development. Because of the physical differences of people with down syndrome they were often mistreated and they still are to this day. The origin of this extra chromosome is still unclear, the only thing that has been associated to an increased chance of having a baby with down syndrome is the age of the mother whilst pregnant. “Once a woman has given birth to a baby with trisomy 21 or translocation, it is estimated that her chances of having another baby with trisomy 21 is 1 in 100 up until age 40.” Women under the age of 35 gave birth to 80% of children with down syndrome. . The partial or full copy of the 21 chromosome which causes down syndrome can come from either of the parents, relativity 5% of the cases have been tracked to the father. Most cases are random occurrences but, in about ? of occurrences, one of the parents is carrying a translocated chromosome. The oldest case of down syndrome was found in the skeleton of a child who died 1500 years ago in the abbey of Saint-Jean-des-Vignes in northeastern France. According to the archaeologists, the way the child was buried implicated that humans with down syndrome were not necessarily “stigmatized” in the middle ages. The small child had been laid on its back in the tomb, in an “east-west” direction with the head at the westward end which was common with all of the dead at the necropolis, this implicates that the child was treated no differently in death from other members of the society. It seems that people in medieval times did not mistreat people with disability. The Eastern State Hospital in Williamsburg, Virginia was known as the first state to form an institution for the mentally ill. Mentally ill people were called terrible names such as lunatics and idiots. “Hundreds of thousands of developmentally disabled children and adults are institutionalized, many for life.”. Institutionalization was not generally forced but parents were often firmly encouraged to institutionalize their kids and told to dismiss from their minds any memory or thought of that particular family member. It wasn’t until the 1950s that “deinstitutionalization” began, along with the closing of insane asylums and a couple mental institutions. In 1793 Phillipe Pinel and Jean Baptiste Pussin are acknowledged as the first men in Europe to take off the restraints that withheld people with disability and propose more gentle, humane ways into the care of the mentally ill at the Asylum de Bicêtre in Paris, France. Jean Baptiste Pussin inspired Phillipe Pinel and they spread improvements like identifying different disorders, as well as watching and communicating with the patients. Americans embrace the “eugenics” movement which was a term Sir Francis Galton came up with in his book “Essays in Eugenics” by establishing laws to prohibit people with disabilities from moving to the United States or getting marrying and having children.” Eugenics forced institutionalization and involuntary sterilization of kids and adults with down syndrome or other disabilities. Indiana also embraced the eugenics laws legalizing sterilization practices. Connecticut followed in 1909 and an eugenics movement started in California specifically targeting “non-Nordic” people through forced sterilization and marriage restrictions. “The Kallikak Family” by Henry H. Goddard brought forth the concept that disability is associated with immorality. The book was a “best-seller” and increased the eugenics movement. The film “The Black Stork” was released, influenced by the incredible case of Dr. Harry Haiselden. It features a couple who have a newborn with many disabilities, they are convinced by a Chicago surgeon to allow the child to starve to death instead of having surgery that would save its life.World War II began and Hitler ordered a huge “mercy killing” of ill and disabled people. The Nazi euthanasia program also known as Aktion T4 was started to get rid of “life unworthy of life.” One of the first laws of legislation passed by the Nazis was the “Law for the Prevention of Hereditarily Diseased Offspring,” individuals with specific conditions were to forced to be sterilized. “An intricate institutional and bureaucratic framework of doctors, nurses, lawyers, and administrators was set up, and about 300,000 people were forcibly sterilized during the 1930s.” In the year 1941 Hitler finally ended the Aktion T4 program that murdered approximately 100,000 people. Sadly, the killing didn’t stop, through the use of drugs and starvation many more people were murdered. In total 200,000 people with developmental disabilities were murdered in cold blood by starvation or lethal injection.