Pakistan country where about 97 percent Pakistani are

Pakistan is the second most populous Muslim-majority country where about 97 percent Pakistani are Muslim.  Religion and deep rooted traditions govern private and public lives of the people.   Print and electronic media has been an important form of communication in the country. Television began its transmission on November 26, 1964 (see Khan, 2010). Pakistan Television Cooperation (PTV) was under the strict control and censorship of the government.  The control and censorship were further tightened by the military government of General Zia-Ul-Haq in the 1980s.  Women, in Zia time, were allowed to appear on TV in limited roles, i.e. as a mother, sister, daughter or wife. Nevertheless, they were supposed to be modestly dressed with Dupatta on their heads which covers their hair.  PTV was the government’s exclusive controlled television channel until 1990 when Shalimar Television Network (STN) and Network Television Marketing (NTM) were launched as private TV channels. However, the state run PTV remained the dominant television channel until the start of the 21st century.  In 2002, during General Pervez Musharraf military government, the liberalization of media in general, and that of television in particular, brought an end to PTV monopoly and led to the freedom of media in Pakistan.  In addition to the local television channels, 87 private television channels were given licenses by Pakistan Electronic Media Regulatory Authority (PEMRA).  With the boom in electronic media, foreign television channels were made available to Pakistani people via cable and satellite television. In order to smooth and facilitate the media boom in Pakistan, PEMRA was formed in 2002. PEMRA has code of conduct for Pakistan Television (PTV) as well as the rest of 87 private television channels.  The PEMRA ordinance clearly states that advertisements must avoid or discourage obscenity, vulgarity or other material offensive to collective morality.   The ordinance also prohibits advertisements which are repugnant to Islamic values.  Besides PEMRA, there are some self-regulatory agencies, made by the journalists, responsible for facilitation and regulating the establishment and operation of all broadcast media and distribution services in Pakistan.   PEMRA issues the license conditioned with certain code of ethics so consequently any media outlet is liable to disqualify its license in case it violates the code of morality in its transmission.   It is noteworthy to mention here that morality in Pakistan springs from religion and deep rooted traditions and not from philosophy.   However, we don’t undermine the alternative sources of morality and the subjective meaning attached to good and bad.