Pain Medications

Types of pain medications

There are many medications that are used to relieve pain. Pain can therefore be best controlled when patients used the appropriate medications. Pain can also be minimized using non-pharmaceutical remedies. This is a list of medications that can be used to remedy pain: Acetaminophen otherwise called Tylenol; Non-steroidal anti-inflammatory medications-NSAIDS; Corticosteroids; Narcotics; Anti-Convulsants; and local Anesthetics.

When Tylenol is used in treating pain, it does not exhibit anti-inflammatory effects. This makes Tylenol a number one choice in treating chronic pains. It can be very effective when it is made use of appropriately. It can however be very dangerous when abused or used in excess.

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Caution should be taken to prevent patients from taking regular Tylenol together with Percocet or Darvocet. NSAIDS are very appropriate in treating acute pains (Marcus, 2006). They are also ideal in treating inflammatory conditions. Its use is normally restricted to treating chronic pains to albeit risk of stomach problems despite the fact that components like Celebrex have been made to remedy the above mentioned condition.

NSAIDS should not be administered to patients over longer periods of time. Ibuprofen and Motrin also fall under the category of NSAIDS. Corticosteroids are designed to manage acute pains because of its anti-inflammatory abilities. It can be administered to patients orally or injected into the soft tissues.

Those that can be taken through the mouth include Medrol and Prednisone where as cortisone is given through injections. Narcotics can only be used to control pain on condition that the pain cannot otherwise be controlled because they can be dangerous and addictive. Narcotics are however very effective. Narcotics are only used in treating acute pain.

Protracted use of these narcotics can lead to addiction. Anti-Convulsants are normally used in alleviating nerve pain as they are capable of altering the functions of the nerves. Neurontin is a very popular drug that falls under this category. Local anesthetics only help in relieving the pain temporarily. They are usually topically applied in instances when they are used in treating chronic pain. Lidoderm is one example of such medications used topically.

Pharmacology of Corticosteroids

These steroids stimulate anabolic effect when they bind to protein receptors that assist in creating new proteins in the cell hence increase in RNA activity. This helps in increasing the muscle size and general strength. This is enhanced by the binding of the steroids to the protein receptor sites found on protein cells. Steroids enhance the retention of nitrogen hence the positive nitrogen balance in individuals who use the steroids.

Corticosteroids can be very detrimental to the liver where there metabolism and excretion takes place. This is very dangerous when these steroids are taken in excess. The liver works very hard to ensure that steroids are detoxified and toxins released. The liver labors so hard to ensure that this is done.

This can result into the inflammation of the liver hence liver cirrhosis a health condition that really scares as it can lead to liver failure if not mitigated earlier enough. Corticosteroids can also interfere with the heart as it increases the level of low density lipo-protein.

Opinion

Despite the fact that corticosteroids are the most favored anti-inflammatory medication, care should be taken to avoid over-dosage and prolonged use as this may burden the kidney leading to kidney failure.

Reference

Marcus, D.A. (2006). Treatment of Non-malignant Chronic Pain. American Family Physician, 61(5), pp.1331-8.