One major motivational model or theory more often used in organizations and industries is the theory by Abraham Maslow (Smith et al, 1982). More prominently called as the hierarchy of needs, this theory explains an individual’s needs on different levels. On the theory, Maslow defines basic or fundamental needs as the individual’s biological needs like hunger, thirst and rest. Maslow believes that on this basic level lies the “evolution” of the other so-called “higher” needs.
If the lower levels are not satisfied, the implications mean the individual cannot or will not move onto the higher levels (Morris et al. , 1999, p. 302; Marx 1976). Maslow’s theory became a phenomenal one especially in industry because of its humanistic desirability; they seemed significant to people. It helps clarify why some work incentives are not effective for some people and situations. And managers in work settings can implement interventions in their workplaces based on their understanding of human behavior according to the hierarchy of needs (Berry, 2002, p.240).
Psychology recognizes different perspectives of motivation. One of these viewpoints pertains to the idea of “motivational inducements,” otherwise known as incentives. Incentives are referenced from either the vantage point of internal, or that of external motivation. An inducement coming from within the individual is called intrinsic or internal motivation. It is, according to Morris and Maisto, about the “. . . desire to perform a behavior that originates within the individual.
” An inducement coming from outside the individual is called external or extrinsic motivation. It is the aspiration to do or achieve a goal in order to acquire a type of incentives or escape or steer clear of punishment (Morris and Maisto, 1999, p. 316). Children are often induced by the presence of external incentives to perform expected tasks or avoid incurring punishment. For motivation experts, however, a person developing the internal type of motivation will reap more lasting and beneficial effects compared with external motivation (1999).
To induce a child to do what the parents ask for by way of rewards or threats are at times less constructive or even detrimental to the overall performance of the person or child. Essentially, the role of motivation in a person’s life is crucial to the understanding of human activities. Motivation is never static because in life, there always presents a dynamic and changing pattern of needs. Internal and external motivation provides in brief, an astute way of explaining the “why’s” of people’s behaviors. ~Synthesis
Understanding nature and nurture in the context of understanding the trends that curriculum will be taking reasonably places the responsibilities upon forecasters to fully take account of the various aspects or factors from the very start of the evaluation process in determining whether the material indeed can make their impact and up to what extent. Moreover, the weight of the effects of motivating children or students always depend on sufficient know-how of the dynamics of learning and the individuality that is inherently understood as a human factor and characteristic.