OCEAN on marine life , its food chain

OCEAN AND
COASTAL SEDIMENT POLLUTION

ABSTACT

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The pollution in
the marine or ocean sediments is an irreversible process. This paper reviews an
overall effects that causes the pollution. The main reasons that causes the
risk impact on marine life , its food chain and the ecosystem are due to the
dumping  of plastic wastes, oil spillage
, heavy metal interaction, dredging etc . An case study on ………………… is also
discussed in this paper. The US legislation has taken many acts against the
ocean pollution. Some of the policies are also noted here.

Keywords:

Micro plastics, sediment pollution, oil spillage, legislation
,

1.    
INTRODUCTION

As
per an article published in “The Hindu “newspaper
on 13 February 2015, it was stated that the total amount of plastic waste
dumped worldwide are nearly eight million tons. China is standing in the 1st
position with 8.82 annually whereas India is ranked 12th with 0.6
tons annually. As per the survey the total amount of waste generated will be
doubled the number calculated by 2010.

Even
if we believe that ” The solution of
pollution is dilution” , the recent studies shows a dramatic degradation of
shore lines for the past three centuries due to the discharge from industries
as well as the runoff from the agricultural lands . Due to the increase in the
coastal cities, the pollution has increased rapidly.

Initially
the dumping was started in rivers and lakes. The ocean dumping was difficult
due to the distance and hardness in transporting the waste. But the waste from
the ships were directly dumped in the mid of the sea. Over the last 150 years,
all type of lavishes were dumped into the ocean such as military waste,
radioactive wastes, industrial wastes, etc. These were dumped through pipe
lines, rivers, gas explorations, offshore mining and became the ultimate
dumping yards for the people.

Fig
1: plastic waste dumped in Kochi

(Source:
http://www.thehindu.com/sci-tech/energy-and-environment/india
)

 

2.    
VARIOUS
FORMS OF POLLUTION

Pollution
is the prolusion of foreign contaminants in the ecosystem. The most common
pollutants that enters the ocean are oil, sewage, plastics, pesticides,
chemical fertilizers, herbicides and other solid wastes. The pollutants are
either consumed by the marine animals eventually end up in humans where as
other pollutants causes sediment pollution. The nitrogen rich fertilizers
caused pollution in ground water and are finally deposited at bays and deltas.
There causes enormous growth of algae and take up all the oxygen from content.
Thus leaving the water unfit for the marine growth. There are nearly 400 places
worldwide which are prone to these kind of pollution. The solid wastes are
often mistaken as food by the marine animals causing fatal effects.

2.1.
PLASTIC DUMPING

The
production, use and improper disposal of plastic has raised the impact on the
ocean pollution. From 1950’s the use has been rapid and by the end of 2010, the
dumping of plastic was nearly 4.8-12.7 million tons in the ocean. This has
caused a negative impact on marine animals and their ecosystem, as well as in
agriculture, tourism, navigation etc. The initial research were done on micro
plastics.

2.2.
OIL SPILLAGE

The
chemical pollution due to the oil extraction and spillage at various places
causes an high health risk on marine ecosystem. Many oil industries shows less
care while extracting the hydro- carbon petroleum products. The high
concentration of lead in the blood is the main cause of this kind of pollution.
At the downstream of the river, a high concentration of petroleum products were
noticed. Thus as it reaches the main source like oceans, the effect will be
even worse. The marine life will be entirely destroyed.

2.3.
HEAVY METALS

Many
researchers, studied about the effect of heavy metal on ground water, surface
water, sediments etc. The water bodies like rivers and lakes are contaminated
with heavy metals due to the industrial waste dumping. These water bodies end
up meeting the ocean water and its sediments causing high degree of pollution. The
heavy metals from the municipal sewage, agricultural residues, fertilizers etc.
will penetrate into the sediment causing a detrimental effect on the biotic
life of water. A tremendous effect on food chain is also occurred due to this.

 

3.    
US
LEGISLATION

1.     The
National Environmental Policy Act (NEPA) in 1969

2.     The
Ocean Dumping Act (ODA) in 1972

3.     The
Federal Water Pollution Control Act ( Clean Water Act CWA) in 1972

4.     London
Convection (LC- 1972) and came in 1975 combining 8 nations for dumping waste at
the sea.

5.     UN
Convection on the Law of the Sea( UNCLOS) in 1982

 

 

4.    
CASE
STUDY

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

5.    
CONCLUSION

Tons
of pollutants are dumped into the sea worldwide. To prevent the destruction of
the sediments, the government should be aware of all the materials that are
dumped into the sea. The legislations are at national as well as international
levels. Proper monitoring and enforcement of the rules and regulations should
be done.

 

REFERNCES

 

1.     Richards,
Frederick Forrest III (1991) “Ocean Dumping: An International and Domestic
Perspective;” Journal of Legislation
“,Vol. 17: Issue  2, Article 7

2.     Antoni
Rosell-Melé et al, ” Oil pollution in soils and sediments from the Northern
Peruvian Amazon ” , Science of the Total Environment,  610–611 (2018) 1010–1019

3.     Joan
Fabres  et al” Marine plastic pollution as a planetary
boundary threat – The drifting piece in the sustainability puzzle”,   ” Marine policy “, 7 December 2017

4.     Yuxin Ma, Crispin J. Halsall et
al  ” Polycyclic
aromatic hydrocarbons in ocean sediments from the North  Pacific to the Arctic Ocean,  Environmental
Pollution , 227 (2017) 498- 504

5.     http://www.thehindu.com/sci-tech/energy-and-environment/india.

6.     https://www.nationalgeographic.com/environment/oceans/critical-issues-marine-pollution/

7.     http://www.pollutionissues.com/Na-Ph/Ocean-Dumping.html