Obesity or, in severe cases, early death.

is the accumulation of body fat to
the level which might have a negative effect on health.

Body Mass Index (BMI)
is a widely used diagnostic tool which provides a simple numeric measure of a
person’s ‘fatness’. BMI of 18.5 to
25may indicate optimal weight; a number above 25 may indicate the person is
overweight; while a number above 30 proposes the person is obese and over 40, indicates
unhealthily obese.( Srivastava, S,
2009 )

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There are various medical conditions that are
associated with obesity. Individuals who are obese are at risk of developing
one or more of these severe medical conditions, causing poor health or, in
severe cases, early death. The most customary
obesity-related diseases include:

High blood pressure
High cholesterol
Heart disease
Gallbladder disease
Gastroesophageal Reflux Disease
Sleep apnea and respiratory
Some cancers.

of obesity:
Obesity is due to an individual taking in
additional calories than they burn over a long period of time. These
“additional” calories are deposited as fat. Although there are several factors
that can lead to this energy imbalance in obese individuals, the main
contributors are behavior, environment and genetics.

Although obesity is a multifactorial disease, an imbalance between
energy intake and expenditure is commonly quoted as its only cause. (Fernandes, A. C., Oliveira, R. C., Rodrigues, V. M.,
Fiates, G. M., & Proença, R. P. (2015) )

Nutritional Labeling:

One of many strategies proposed to decrease obesity rates and related
chronic diseases worldwide is Menu
labeling. (Fernandes, A. C., Oliveira, R.
C., Rodrigues, V. M., Fiates, G. M., & Proença, R. P. (2015) )

Nutrition labeling of menus has been promoted as a means for helping
consumers make healthier food choices  as
most  of
the consumers are unaware of the high levels of calories, fat, saturated fat,
and sodium found in many menu items. (Burton,
S., Creyer, E. H., Kees, J., & Huggins, K,2006)

Food Labeling serves as a primary link of communication
between the manufacturer or packer of food on the one hand and supplier,
seller, and user or consumer on the other hand. The manufacturer can influence
the consumer or its target user that it is the product of his choice, which suits
to consumer needs. Thus, the correct and required labeling certainly promotes
the sale of his product.

Countries have menu labeling provision. In the United States, the Patient
Protection and Affordable Care Act of 2010 requires the disclosure of calorie
information on menus of all chain restaurants with 20 or more outlets . In the
United Kingdom, the government’s Responsibility Deal  includes the provision of calorie information
in out-of-home restaurants .In Brazil, big fast-food chains already
disclose calorie information on menus, and some municipal and state regulations
on menu labeling are also being implemented.

a need for labeling on menus to increase consumer awareness in cafes and  restaurant environments is important.


We Will Study the Impact of
Displaying Nutritional Information on Consumers food choices and Decisions.



Literature Review:

Diet is a primary risk factor for a range of chronic
diseases, including heart disease, diabetes and some forms of cancer. ( White, C. M., Lillico, H. G., Vanderlee, L., &
Hammond, D. (2016). Food eaten at fast food chains and
other restaurants has kept particular scientific interest because it is
associated with higher energy, fat and saturated fat intake ;lower intake of
fiber and calcium; greater consumption of 
junk and unhealthy food  and lower
fruit and vegetable intake.

models of food choice behaviors often consider a larger time frame of food
decision-making and include broader contextual effects such as family
relationships, age and life course.  (Harnack, L. J., & French, S. A.

In the past decades, obesity
in both adults and children has increased dramatically.

The fast-food industry is frequently blamed as one of the major causes
of the childhood obesity problem . (Ahn, J., Park, H., Lee, K., Kwon, S., Kim, S., Yang, J., .
. . Lee, Y. (2015).)

Countries  are undergoing rapid nutrition
change concurrent with an increase in obesity, metabolic syndrome, and type 2
diabetes (T2DM). There is a shift from a healthy traditional home-cooked
high-fiber, low-fat, low-calorie diet, towards increasing consumption of
packaged, ready-to-eat foods which are calorie-dense and contain refined
carbohydrates, high fat, salt and sugar; and less fiber. Although fats and oils
have been an integral part of our diets, there is a change in the pattern of
consumption, in terms of both quality and quantity. (Kelishadi, R. (2007))


Major Cause of Obesity:

Behavior Cause:

In the present quick paced condition, it is anything but
difficult to receive undesirable practices. Behavior cause , identifies with
nutrition decisions, measure of physical effort you perform and the push to
keep up your wellbeing. In view of food choices 
many individuals now select diet plans that are calorie-rich, however
supplement poor. This behavioral issue additionally identifies with the
expansion in food intake amount at home and when eating out.

The rapid rise In obesity is due to
largely changes in the food and physical activity environments. Energy-dense,
nutrient-poor foods are conveniently available and heavily marketed. Foods and fast-food consumption has been linked
to higher caloric intake and greater risk for obesity as they are known as
being higher-calorie and less-nutritive.

In addition, the past two decades have
seen a proliferation of restaurants, increased snacking, decreased family meals
and greater consumption of meals prepared outside the home. The growth in
portion sizes of packaged and restaurant food have been implicated in growing
obesity prevalence.


In the course of recent decades, dietary examples have
changed essentially. The normal measure
of calorie intake every day has drastically expanded and food portions
additionally assume a vital part in the unfortunate eating patterns that have
advanced. The trend of” Extra larger Servings available” and “buffets ” has led
to lack of physical activity and people consuming more and expending less due
to lack of knowledge of daily dietary 


Labelling and Its Uses :


labels can simplify the whole concept of healthy eating.

The term menu labeling has been used
with different meanings. Some authors quote  it as a synonym for calorie information ,while
others use it to entitle nutritional information such as calories and
nutrients.( Fernandes, A. C.,
Oliveira, R. C., Proença, R. P., Curioni, C. C., Rodrigues, V. M., &
Fiates, G. M. (2016).)

As indicated by
the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) in the USA, a label is the essential
purpose of contact between the maker and the buyer and ought to be thought of
as an crucial piece of the maker’s advertising design. ( Prathiraja, P., & Ariyawardana, A. (2011).))


Study by ( Prathiraja, P., & Ariyawardana, A.
(2011).)  Reveals that  provision of nutrition information  allows consumers to switch consumption away
from ‘unhealthy’ products in those food categories toward ‘healthy’ products in
food categories more easily.

According to  (Prathiraja,
P., & Ariyawardana, A. (2011)), a label should clearly and minimally
state the name of the product, the net weight, the nutrition facts panel
(nutritional label), the name and address of the manufacturer, and the brand

In India, as per  Food Safety and Standards
(Packaging and Labelling) Regulations, 2011, notified by Food Safety and
Standards Authority of India (FSSAI), Every Packaged food must be labeled in agreement to appropriate law in
the country. 
(Says, S. (2016, February 06)

FSSAI(Food Safety and Standards Authority
of India )
doesn’t have any Law or Regulation for Menu Labeling for restaurants and


L. J., & French, S. A. 2008) said that ,Calorie labeling on
eatery  chains and cafeterias  menu is one general well being approach that
has been proposed to enable customers to settle on better nourishment decisions
at eateries and consumers must be informed about nutritional information at
point of purchase for better decision making. Consumer’s approaches towards the
nourishing part of the foods are expanding quickly as labels on food products
has a important role in delivering the relevant nutrition information to consumers. (Roberto, C. A., & Khandpur, N. (2014))

idea of Traffic-light labelling  by
(Emrich, T. E., Qi, Y., Lou, W. Y., & L’Abbe, M. R. (2017)  was  proposed in Canada as a general wellbeing  intercession to decrease chronic disease risk
by refining the nutritional intakes of consumers .Traffic-light labels are a
practice of interpretative front-of-pack
(FOP) nourishment rating framework that provide information on the amount
of calories and choose nutrients found within a specified amount of food. (Mcguire,
Michelle. 2012).

Author (Roberto, C. A., & Khandpur, N. (2014)) added
, Right and straight forward food labeling is a well  meaning and well being objective that ought
to be viewed as a vital methodology among many researchers to address obesity
and horrible eating routine.




of the Literature :

The readings for all
the literature concludes,

P. S., Wright, J., Zhou, C., Rogers, C. B., & Christakis, D. A. 2010) was the first study to suggest
that  menu labeling can lead to purchase
of  lower calorie content  food in restaurants purchased for children by
there parents

Authors ( Ahn, J.,
Park, H., Lee, K., Kwon, S., Kim, S., Yang, J., . . . Lee, Y. (2015)
recommend that consumer empowerment is an extensive factor that deals with
beneficial data exposure to effect food decisions of consumer(like parents
choosing meal for there children’s  feel empowered
after knowing nutritional facts and choose healthy food for there children’s )
and providing additional nutritional
information can be a tool of empowerment for consumers. Author ( Kent, G. (1988)  recommended nutrition training as an essential instrument of empowerment
.Hence, nutritious data exposure in
fast-food eateries should be joined by fitting nutrition training to improve
perceived empowerment while picking from menus.

Author (Din, N., Zahari, M. S., & Shariff, S. M.
(2017))  concluded that providing
nutritional information on the menu may help customers make healthier eating
choices as due to increasing obesity and related diseases, more and more people
are becoming health conscious and they are concerned about the types of food
they consume. Consumers are interested not only of the appearance of the
products but also the nutritional information for  the food they are purchasing

Examination by 
(Bandara, B., Silva, D. D., Maduwanthi, B., & Warunasinghe, W.
(2016). demonstrates that consumers have a tendency to inspect the label  when settling on the buying choice due to
assess the reasonableness of the food item for vegans, religious reasons, to
stay away from illnesses identified with food and to check whether the food is
naturally developed or not.

Refreshing the
Nutrition Facts Panel and building up a uniform front-of-package labeling
framework and delivering consumers with nutritional information on menus offer
critical chances to instruct individuals about food’s nutritious stuff, increase
attention to sensible portion sizes and help consumers to settle on more
healthier decisions. (Roberto, C. A., & Khandpur, N.2014)

(Sacks, G.,
Veerman, J. L., Moodie, M. and Swinburn, B 2011,) projected  that traffic light labelling on food products
could have a significant positive impact on the energy and nutrient intakes and
would have a positive impact on calorie intake and body weight.


study by  (Emrich, T. E., Qi, Y., Lou, W. Y., &
L’Abbe, M. R. (2017) stated that the 
choice of foods that met a specific nutritional  standard over comparative food’s that did not
meet these guidelines would bring about positive changes in consumers  dietary consumption.

A study done by ( Fernandes, A. C., Oliveira, R. C.,
Rodrigues, V. M., Fiates, G. M., & Proença, R. P. (2015) in North America
UNIVERSITY  identified  that  ,
that consumers identified that the most valued information on labeling was the
list of ingredients, followed by energy and fat content and stated that, perceptions
and choices of university students who received nutrition information in
restaurants which provided information on serving size, ingredients, calorie, sugar,
fat, carbohydrate, protein, sodium, cholesterol and trans fat effected students
choices and also concluded that display of only calorie data alone would be
lacking and stressed the importance of displaying a list of ingredients and fat

Results of experiment done by  (Din, N., Zahari, M. S., & Shariff, S. M.
(2017))  reveal that the common featured nutrients in
food retail products like calories, protein, fat and dietary fiber were the
minimum wanted information in the eatery menu experiment and , female customers were observed
to be somewhat more worried than male clients on specific components identified
with nutritious data as they are considered as responsible authority in
providing the food and food selection for families. 

Experiment by  ( Fernandes,
A. C., Oliveira, R. C., Rodrigues, V. M., Fiates, G. M., & Proença, R. P.
(2015) concluded  that calorie
labeling  would only help some people
make food choices and also that if 
standardized portions of food is provided in label it will help people
to use the information to compare similar food products at markets, or similar
dishes in other eateries.

Authors(Boles M, Maher JE, Moore JM, Knapp A. 2010)
recommended ,While endeavoring to brighten the relationship
between nutritional data declaration and consumers’ food decisions, Researchers should consider the potential
factors interplaying with disclosed nutritional information on affecting
consumers’ food choices.

L. J., & French, S. A. 2008) recommended that  The effect on purchase
or food choices through calorie labeling 
or nutritional information  could  be supported if some additional weight is
given to the nutritional information or calorie labeling.

 For example, the value of considering calories
when making food choices at restaurants could be strengthened through
promotional messages combined with the calorie labels.



Conclusion states that Labelling has an positive impact on food choices and
purchases decision of consumers but  Calorie labeling alone on menus  is not enough 
to combat with the issue of obesity and researchers should focus on  creative and cost effective ways to create
nutritional awareness to decrease intake of unhealthy food and increase the
awareness for healthy choices for consumers.