o about the history and development of criminology

Criminology:  Seminar Log

Date: 06.10.17

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Seminar Preparation
For seminar, our seminar preparation consisted of using research and
our own knowledge to write 5 sentences about a criminologist of our choice so
that we can go through this research in date order to provide ourselves with
the ability to think about the history and development of criminology as a
discipline.  For this task, I had
decided to focus on Cesare Beccaria. Cesare Beccaria is known as the father
of criminology. This is because prior to Beccaria it appears that no one had
applied his mind to these questions of what constitutes a crime in the philosophical
sense; why crime it committed and how crime can be reduced. (Calers’s
Blog, 2017)
Calers’s Blog. (2017). Cesare Beccaria and his contribution to
the field of criminology.. online Available at:
Cesare Beccaria and his contribution to the field of criminology.
Accessed 18 Dec. 2017.
In addition, we were instructed to read about the history and
development of criminology in our chosen textbook. For this task, we were
provided with support as we were advised to contact our seminar tutor if we
were struggling to find something to read. For this task, I had chosen to
read the text book ‘criminology’ by Tim Newburn, I has summaries some information
on how there was an emergence of a modern criminal justice system which had developed
from the past. Historically, there was no formalised criminal justice system
therefore no court system or police forces whereas this has now been
established and embedded by 1950.  (Newburn, 2009)
Newburn, T. (2009). Criminology.
Cullompton: Willan, p.23.


Within the seminar we looked at the history and development of
criminology then organised our chosen criminologists and put them into a
timeline while discussing each individual one. Throughout the seminar we had
used our own knowledge and information from our lecturer to gain a brief understanding
on a history of criminology timeline, from this seminar I had inferred that
classical criminology came out during the 18th century with the contribution
of Beccaria and Jeremy Bentham. Positivism occurred in the late 1800’s with
the contribution of Lombroso and Ferri. And then interaction was followed on
in 1892 with critical criminology arising, the latest theory was feminist criminology
which aroused in the 1990’s.
To end the seminar, we had had a discussion into politics which
insisted of the understanding of left and right realism, within this discussion
I had acknowledged the differences between these opposing views. Left realism
focuses on crime being perceived by victims and strongly agree that crime can
be caused by relative deprivation whereas right realism rejects utopianism in
favour of conservatism.


Reflections and
To reflect and consolidate over our seminar we looked further into
politics to expand our knowledge. To carry out this reflection I had done my own
research into left and right realism into depth to increase my knowledge on
it. Right realists advocate for law and order policies, they have a view that
laws shoes be unambiguous and enforced and that harsh punishments should be
enforced as a means of feting offenders off the streets and to prevent future
crime as a social retribution. Whereas left realists say that working class
people are victimised from all aspects in a capitalist society. (Julianhermida.com,
Julianhermida.com. (2017). LEFT AND RIGHT
REALISM. online Available at:
http://www.julianhermida.com/contrealism.htm Accessed 18 Dec. 2017.


Date: 13.10.17

Seminar Preparation
To prepare for this seminar we had to find several reasons as we can
for why a victim might not report a crime to the police and why the police
may choose not to report certain crimes on the crime records, and with this
information we had found were to be used to have a discussion in the seminar.
From my own knowledge I know that victims may not report crimes due to being
scared about the outcome or they may be stressed that the police may not be
of sufficient help therefore don’t disclose the crime to the police, however with
further research I learn other reasons why victims may not report a crime to
the police, this may be because people often have little trust in the police
and other agencies to deal with their case sensitively because of previous
negative experiences when they have reported in the past.
(Community2.newcastle.gov.uk, 2017)
Community2.newcastle.gov.uk. (2017). Why people don’t
report incidents | Newcastle City Council. online
Available at:
https://community2.newcastle.gov.uk/core.nsf/a/why_peopledontreport Accessed
18 Dec. 2017.
I found out that police may choose not to report certain cries on the
crime records because there’s no credible evidence to the contrary, the victim
declines to provide their personal details or the victim may not want to take
the matter further due to their personal reasons.


Within the seminar we had been put in groups to discuss and prepare
how we would carry out a research project regarding the subject rape, within
this task we had considered what factors we could use to measure the amount
of rape that happens, we also had to consider the advantages and disadvantages
of each factor. For example, would someone be confident enough to admit
they’ve been raped? Will this then make the results unrepresentative?
In addition, to end the seminar we had a class discussion on
scenarios on where a person may report a crime or why they may not want to. This
seminar task had then linked to our seminar preparation as we had to prepare for
reasons as why people may not report crimes and how this can affect the crime


Reflections and
To reflect and consolidate from our seminar we had been provided with
a link leading to a website about using a different crime survey.  This article had suggested that the Crime Survey
for England and Wales isn’t very effective in measuring crime, it mentions
how the CWES is neither a survey of crime and it’s much better at not measuring
crime than it is at measuring crimes true extent. (Crimeandjustice.org.uk,
Crimeandjustice.org.uk. (2017). We need a
different crime survey | Centre for Crime and Justice Studies.
online Available at:
Accessed 18 Dec. 2017.


Date: 20.10.17

Seminar Preparation
In order to prepare for this seminar, we had to find examples of
situational crime prevention in order to support us for our seminar. Situational
crime prevention is crime prevention strategies that are aimed at recuing
criminal opportunities which come from everyday life. Examples pf situational
crime prevention might include improving surveillance of areas that might
attract crime for example the use of CCTV and hardening of potential targets.
Crim.cam.ac.uk. (2017). Situational Crime
Preventions |Centre for Penal Theory & Ethics | Institute of Criminology
| Cambridge University. online Available at:
http://www.crim.cam.ac.uk/research/cpt/situationalprevention/ Accessed 19
Dec. 2017.
In addition, we had been provided with some reading which included a
case study and the ‘early schools of criminology and their modern
counterparts’. Case study had stated how modern criminology is the product of
the classical school and positivists school and that the study of crime and
criminal behaviour arose as a secondary consequence of the interest show by pioneers
in penal reform. (Sagepub.com, 2017)
Sagepub.com. (2017). Cite a Website –
Cite This for Me. online Available at:
Accessed 19 Dec. 2017.


During the seminar, we were enlightened on the rational choice theory
and the history of it. And went over some examples regarding this, for
example burglary
We then had to draw a decision tree for a selection of crimes, and I
had chosen fraud to complete this task.
In addition, we had also learnt about the routine activity theory
with involved Cohen and Felson. Furthermore, we also completed a situational
crime prevention task and discussed what examples of situational crime
prevention measures there is. Followed by this shortly we watched a YouTube
clip on situational crime prevention which examined the concept of
situational crime prevention through the work of Dr. Kate painter and her
stroke on tent study of street lighting and its relationship of crime
We had been a task in groups to suggest crime prevention and one of
these tasks included organising a stadium control at football match and
analysing the types of environmental challenges involved. The factors we had
to consider in this task was crowd control, alcohol consumption, rivalry etc.


Reflections and
To reflect and consolidate from this seminar I had read over some
The first theory I had read over was about the opportunity theories
which concludes that offenders have the opportunity to commit crime and it
assumes that anyone could make criminal actions in the right circumstances.
Another theory to reflect on was the rational choice theory which
views criminality as being an outcome of deciding between desires and
preferences and weighing up opportunities involved in committing a crime.
This theory emphasises the importance of opportunities, situational factors,
choices and decisions throughout the offending process.
In addition, another factor we had to read about was bounded
rationality which is within the rational choice theory and is seen as
‘optimisation within constrains’. It recognises emotional, pathological and
moral constraints on decision making.
We also had to read about the routines activity theory, changes in
routine activities create new opportunities for offending. This theory
suggests that in order for offending to take place there need to be at any
given time or place; a motivated offender, a suitable target and absence of a
capable guardian.
Furthermore, we were told to read about situational crime prevention
after our seminar. From reading this I inferred that to deter a motivated
offender from an ease of access target, a factor must be changed to increase
the perception in the offender that risks of getting caught are high and
reward gained in low. (Canvas.sunderland.ac.uk, 2017)
Canvas.sunderland.ac.uk. (2017). UOS : Login.
online Available at:
Accessed 19 Dec. 2017.
Additionally, I also was tasked to read 25 techniques of scp after
the seminar which had enlightened me on techniques on which crime can be



Date: 27.10.17

Seminar Preparation
For this seminar to prepare we had to read a document ‘psychological
theories of crime’. This journal (Moore, 2011)
Moore, M. (2011). Psychological Theories of Crime
and Delinquency. Journal of Human Behavior in the Social
Environment, 21(3), pp.226-239.


For this seminar, we had concentrated on psychological positivism.
We had been given a group task we had been given a theory and were
told to provide a summary of it by including outline of the approach, what it
has it say about crime and any criticisms regarding the theory. My allocated
theory was ‘learning theories’.
In addition, we were also taught about the classical theory vs the
positivist theory.


Reflections and
For after the seminar we were directed to links to read about
personality and life cycles. We were also provided with links about classical
theory and positivism.



Date: 03.11.17

Seminar Preparation
To prepare for this seminar our task was to examine to contrasts
between positivism and classical theory using our own knowledge from what
we’ve learn in the course so far.


Within the seminar we had been assigned a group task in which we had to
design a timeline of an ideal criminal’s life, therefore we had to ‘give
birth to a criminal’ so we had to create a timeline in which a criminal goes
through from when they’re born up until they turn into a criminal and we had
to consider the factors which may affect a criminal’s life and the reason why
they may have turned to crime.


Reflections and
After the seminar were given two links to read.
One of the links was a blog regarding the comparisons and contrast of
classical theory which
The other blog article consisted of a comparison and analysis go
classical theories of crime which