Numerous reactivity, and functionalizable structure [1]. Chitosan is

 Numerous
antimicrobial drugs have been prescribed to kill or inhibit the growth of
microbes such as bacteria, fungi and viruses. Even though the therapeutic
efficacy of these drugs has been well established, inefficient delivery could
result in inadequate therapeutic index and local and systemic side effects
including cutaneous irritation, peeling, scaling and gut flora reduction.
Nanostructured biomaterials, nanoparticles in particular, have unique
physicochemical properties such as ultra small and controllable size, large
surface area to mass ratio, high reactivity, and functionalizable structure 1.

 

Chitosan is a natural polysaccharide prepared by the
N-deacetylation of chitin. It has been widely used in food and
bioengineering industries, including the encapsulation of active food
ingredients, in enzyme immobilization, and as a carrier for controlled drug
delivery, due to its significant biological and chemical properties such as
biodegradability, biocompatibility, bioactivity, and polycationicity2. 

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The physicochemical nature of chitin and chitosan,
which influences the biomedical activity of these compounds, is strongly
related to the source of chitin and the conditions of the chitin/chitosan
production process. The solubility of chitin and chitosan in water and organic
solvent will be affected drastically by weight-averaged molecular weight (MW)
and degree of N-acetylation (DA), other physicochemical parameters like
polydispersity (MW/MN), crystallinity or the pattern of acetylation (PA)3.

 

Catheter related blood stream infections (CRBSIs)
represent an essential part of the management of critically and chronically ill
patients. Since the Treatment for CRBSIs is often difficult due to the
microorganism’s development of resistance to the drug being used severala
specific biofilms were formulated. To overcome antibiotic resistance, chitosan
nanoparticles encapsulating a biofilm degrading enzyme, ?-N-Acetylglucosaminidase
(NAGase) were fabricated through an ionic gelation method4.

 

Intranasal mucoadhesive
nanoparticles of Rizatriptan benzoate(RZB) was formulated for the treatment of
migraine.RZB loaded chitosan nanoparticles prepared by ionic gelation method
was easy, reproducible and also led to efficient entrapment. Spray dried
nanoparticles were evaluated by Differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), X-ray
diffraction (XRD) pattern to study crystalline/amorphous nature of
nanoparticles, and mucoadhesive test. The percentage mucoadhesion on nasal
mucosa of goat was found to be 29.4%. The release behavior of CS nanoparticles
were evaluated in phosphate buffer pH 6.5, revealed that RZB loaded CS
nanoparticles is most suitable for intranasal drug delivery5.

 

 In another research study of chitosan
efficiency determination, Chitosan nanoparticles loaded by
ketoprofen were  prepared by sonication
and centrifugation methods. It’s preliminary tests were carried out by
conducting optimization condition of sonication including amplitude and
sonication time. Turbidity data showed that the optimum condition for
sonication on amplitude and sonication time at the percentage of 20% and at 60
minutes, respectively. PSA analysis indicated that decreasing of turbidity
number of emulsion was also reduced particle size. SEM and XRD analysis showed
that chitosan nanoparticles loaded by ketoprofen have spherical form and semi
crystalline properties, respectively6.

 

 Chitosan
polymer is considered one of the best polymers used in the field of
Nanomedicine due to its safety, biocompatibility, biodegradability and
environment friendly. Therefore, the development of a new method for the
production of Chitosan nanoparticles should be of great importance for the
pharmaceutical industry applications. From their study, Chitosan sulphate were
capable of  carrying drug molecules which
could explain the importance of such technique. The size of Chitosan sulfate
nanoparticles was determined using different LMW Chitosan HCl and sodium
sulfate were confirmed by Laser diffraction, DSC and FTIR spectroscopy and it
was tested for its dissolution rate7.

 Hydrophilic
nanoparticles was investigated by other groups. They studied it as delivery
systems for therapeutic macromolecules such as antigens. The in vitro release
of nanoparticles showed an initial burst release of approximately 60% in the
first ten hours, followed by a slow and much reduced additional release for
about 60 hours. It is suggested that the chitosan nanoparticles fabricated in earlier
studies may provide a suitable alternative to traditional adjuvant systems8