Nowadays, mostly all brands try to differentiate themselves from each other and show their uniqueness to all public by using high status names ( Choo et al., 2012). However, this particular tactics do not work as well as they use to. Globalisation and modernisation affected the values consumer considers and associates with luxury products (Lim, Weng Marc, Ting, Ding Hooi, Khoo, Pei Theng; Wong, Wei Yi., 2012). Bain & Co. (2005) and Choo et al., (2012) stated that consumers place emphasis on personal service, emotional value or involvement with the brand when making their purchases. Kapferer and Bastien (2009) suggested that for luxury brand is a win factor to engage with customers at emotional level. Brun et al. (2008) stated that those emotional values makes customer experience more memorable and it increases high level of closeness to the brand. It is very visible that most luxury brands try to increase level of loyalty by focusing only on customer emotional attachment rather building social status within the industry (Cailleux et al., 2009).
Obviously, it is very different situation for each brand. Every single individual has different perceptions and expectations for any luxury brand.
Brand value was certainly high interest amongst many researchers. They define brand value in many ways.
Aaker (1991) suggested that brand equity creates value of both, consumers and the brand. It enhances customer’s ;
Interpretation or processing of information
Confidence in purchase decision
and for the firm, it provides value by enhancing;
Efficiency and effectiveness of marketing programs
and competitive advantage
Neal, William; Strauss, Ron (2008) see brand equity as the only element of the brand value equation that can be used for long-term competitive advantage. Furthermore, brand equity becomes a trade off exercise where consumer selects and then decides which product to purchase.
There are many ways the way researchers measured brand values. Aaker (1991) introduced five brand equity assets as the source of the value created; brand loyalty, brand name awareness, perceived brand quality, brand association in addition to perceived quality and other brand assets such as patents and trademarks. Vigneron and Johnson (1999) propose five perceived values (conspicuous value, unique value, social value,emotional value, and quality value) that affects customer decision in choosing particular brand. Yoo and Donthu (2001) measure brand value by using three dimensions: brand loyalty, perceived quality, and brand awareness. Phau and Prendergast (2000) opinion luxury brands involve four dimensions; exclusivity, perceived quality, brand awareness and brand identity.
Burmann, Jost-Benz, and Riley (2009) research explores the sources of brand equity from both internal and external perspectives at the behavioral and financial level by including factors such as perceived brand quality, and uniqueness.
Brand quality and consumer
Uniqueness and consumer
In Wiedman et al., (2007) opinion, uniqueness can be described as degree where customer believe when particular brand they attached to is different from other competing brands.
Snyder and Fromkin (1980) concluded that individuals try to distinct themselves from others and the idea of having similarities to other group of people considered to be unpleasant. Snyder and Fromkin (1977) suggested that customer purchase decision influenced by brand level degree of uniqueness. Tian et al. (2001, p. 52) defined consumer need for uniqueness as: ” the trait of pursuing differentness relative to others through the acquisition, utilization, and disposition of consumer goods for the purpose of developing and enhancing one’s self-image and social image.”
Keller (1993) mentioned that very well know brands such as Chanel or Louis Vuitton carries symbolic identity.
In Vigneron & Johnson, (2004) opinion mostly individuals use luxury brands to classify themselves or to distinguish themselves from others. Dee and Eun Young (2007) also supported this idea and mentioned that consumers select these brands in order to distinguish themselves from the others.
Arghavan & Zaichkowsky, 2000 stated that consumers purchasing luxury goods in order to show their professional position or demonstrate their social status. In this case, individuals try to show their social status through acquiring luxury goods. Kim et al., 2010 studies demonstrated that people’s desire for luxury brands are therefore for symbolic matters such as to show that they belong to a particular membership group.
Choi & Kim, 2003 identified link between emotional responses and consumer willingness to pay premium prices. Individuals consume luxury goods because of the pleasure, excitement and wanting to reward themselves.