Nitrocellulose nearly irreversible, and quantitative up to 80

(NC) membrane was mostly used in protein analysis. NC was one of the popular
membranes used in western blotting experiment to detect the proteins due to high
binding capacity toward protein molecules. Gershoni et al., 1983; Towbin et
al., 1979; Burnette et al., 1981; Lin et al., 1983 reported the  detailed method of blotting techniques for transfer
the proteins to membrane for varoius proteomic applications. The immobilized
proteins was analyzed by subsequent binding of specific antibodies or else
stained for appropriate detection molecules (Jahn et al., 1984). Protein
binding to NC membrane is instantaneous, nearly irreversible, and quantitative
up to 80 to 100µg/cm2. NC membrane is used to detect the molecular weight of
proteins and it is compatible with many protein detection processes. Currently Duchesne
et al., 2007 reported that the detection of proteins/peptides below a 2-5 KDa
by Western blotting is difficult, mainly because of its size; it may be diffuse
through pores of the membrane during the transfer process because of their less
affinity to the membrane which leads to protein loss during blotting procedure.
Xie et al., 2011 also provide information regarding the modification of
membrane surface have been suggested.

great challenge in membrane technology is water treatment. To increase the
membrane performance towards the water treatment is always difficult task and
it’s needed the permanent solutions. Therefore a membrane surface modification
has been suggested for achieving increasing membrane performance. Stoimenov et
al., 2001 reported the use of metal nanoparticles for water disinfection is
relatively new.  The nanoparticles have
large surface to volume ratio, so it enhance the high reactivity (Barraque
2003). Another report was given by Zuhuang 2003 that the nanoparticles are plays
a vital role in water purification. Metal nanoparticles such as gold, silver,
and iron are exhibit a high reactivity with pathogens, pesticides, and mercury
(Xie et al., 2011). Tripathi et al., 2012 was carried out several
investigations against the bactericidal effect of nanoparticles and their
applications in the plastics, health, textile, and paint industry.     

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a common interest is dealing with developing of surface modification of
membrane using nanoparticles for the detection of low molecular protein and
water treatment by microfiltration process.