Motivation other, this looks into the sense

Motivation and
retention of staff is extremely crucial for any business. I will explore how Google motivates and retains talented staff within the organisation, and how motivational theories are looked at within this organisation. Motivation comes in different ways depending on the person as well as the company. The theorist I have decided
to use are; Maslow’s Hierarchy of needs, McClelland’s Human Motivation,
Herzberg’s two-factor theory, Taylor’s scientific management, Mayo Hawthorne
effect, and Adam’s equity theory. I will critically analyse each theory, to
evaluate how Google uses these theorist within the workplace, as a comparison I
have chosen to evaluate Tesco a long side with Google to see if they use the
same ideas to motivate and retain staff.

Maslow’s Hierarchy of needs suggests that people are motivated by physiological, safety, belonging, self-esteem and
self-actualization needs. (McLeod,
2017)
Google motivational system ensures that all five needs that are listed within Maslow’s hierarchy of needs are met. By using different extrinsic motivators Google ensure they take care of the physical, security and social needs of their employees. The extrinsic motivators are the pay which contributes to meeting the employee’s physiological needs. Providing personal health facilities for employees to access e.g. gyms, pools, child care services and a doctor’s office service etc. this meets the safety needs of the employees. Google have various environment in which their staff can relax and also interact with each other, this looks into the sense of belonging at google and this also satisfy their social needs of the employees. Employees strive for innovation, as they get paid on average £160,000 annually, this motivates the employee to strive for accomplishment of their higher-level self-actualization and self-esteem needs. Whilst all these needs are met staff continue to stay motivated and retained. (Majumder, 2016)

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McClelland’s Human
Motivation Theory states that, ‘everyone has three main driving motivators: the
needs for achievement, affiliation, or power.’ (Mind tools content team , 2017) Google provide
employees with substantial opportunities to achieve. Google have a program
which exemplifies their rule of 80/20, According to Chris, “The 80/20 rule
allows employees to dedicate 80% of the time to their primary job and 20% of
the employee’s time becomes successful assent to the company. E.g. Gmail had
been developed by an employee during his 20% time. This allows employees to use
their skills and talents to make achievement. (Townsend,
2012)
Google offers employees with opportunities to hold position in which they have
power. At Google managers and higher-level employees hold power over employees
that report to them. Those who many not have this position of power still have
the opportunity to advance those positions based on merit. Google put extensive
importance on career planning and encourage all employees to set goals and take
steps to ensure they reach their career aspirations (D’Onfro,
2014)
Google provide ample opportunities where employees are able to find
affiliation, with the importance of unity and social culture. Google employees
are empowered to think for themselves, together they are a group bound by their
skills and extraordinaire. Besides this, employees have perks that sets them
apart from the world and increases group solidarity. Once you become an
employee at google you are with the company for life. People that no longer
work at google are considered to be alumni and can still enjoy the perks as
well as support with continued group membership.  (D’Onfro, 2015)Google ensure that employees’ needs
for achievement, power and affiliation is met with high job performance. With
the Human motivation theory, this means that employees are highly motivated to
ensure that they retain valuable staff.

Herzberg two-factor theory states that certain aspects within the work place causes job satisfaction, separate factors cause dissatisfaction. Vice President development at google states, ‘to create the happiest, most productive workplace in the world.” Google uses this theory to make its leadership well aware of the fact that they must provide hygiene factors to avoid employee dissatisfaction but they must provide factors intrinsic motivators to work itself in order for their employees to be satisfied with their jobs. At google, democracy preponderates as employees are given an extensive voice. The need for fulfilment within the work place allows the employee to feel significant, which will motivate them to work harder. (mindtools, 2016)

“It’s less
about the aspiration to be No.1 in the world, and more that we want our employee and future employee to love it here, because that’s what’s going to make us successful.” During the early days of Google, the co-founders had searched for organisation that were known to care for people. They had their own objective to captivate and retain talented staff. Employee motivation the Google way would be through the amazing benefits they provide their staff with. This does not only motivate the staff to enjoy working at google but also ensures staff retention. There are many benefits google offers their employees; for
example, bonuses, gym and child care services etc.  They may include these benefits, however they
manage to control everything their employees do, by this it doesn’t not allow
them to do anything as they work on an 80/20 bases meaning that only 20% of
their time is where they are able to do their own free work. (Brassfield,
2011)

A contradiction of Herzberg theory would be Fredrick Taylor scientific management which states that ‘money is the motivator, that workers do not naturally enjoy work therefore they need close supervision and control’.
 (Mind Tools content team, 2017) Google does not motivate or retain their staff through money being the motivator whereas with ‘the mechanistic models of McDonaldization’ where Taylor’s theory is used looks into money being the
motivator. This meant that employees had to work like machines in a fast
environment producing products based on pay. Ford had used this as a way for
employees to work within their company where they had to produce cars, and
where paid based on the number of cars the produced. With Google, I disagree that they do not use Taylor’s theory as their staff are paid an average wage of £160,000. Therefore, this counter the argument in regard to whether they use Taylors theory or not, due to the fact that their pay is quite high. Considering this factor then this would be a way that Google takes into consideration when motivating and retaining talented staff. As Herzberg’s theory looks into job satisfaction, compared to the expectancy theory which looks into a business maximising pleasure and minimising pain. (Sims, 2016)

Elton Mayo’s motivational theory the Hawthorne study, which concludes that employees are not only motivated by pay but are motivated by attention, monetary rewards or environmental factors e.g., lighting and humidity. (Dininni, 2017) Mayo suggests, that the workers should not be coached with their tasks, but be more engaged in team working in order for them to improve their communication, and by providing social facilities in order to have a positive outcome. Google use this theory through observation of their employee’s productivity levels under varying environmental conditions. The employees at google a treated well google respects and encourages individual leisure hobbies.
This motivates staff as they feel appreciated as the company itself is taking
into consideration that the individuals have other hobbies other than work
itself.  (WordPress, 2016)

As
a comparison Tesco also use the Hawthorne study to motivate and retain talented
staff. At Tesco employees have their own Development plan which they use to help
build through the feedback managers provide the employees with. Tesco use the method as the company is very fond of team work,
whether it be in the actual retail role or higher. Through this method,
managers also communicate with their employees, whether they need to update
them new changes within the company, or talk about their progress and what changes
they may need to put in place. Tesco introduced a Reward programme the Financial rewards packages
are one of the factors which motivates Tesco employees. However, this is not
the only factors, the organisation ensures they motivate people in both their
personal and working lives. Tesco support their employees varied lifestyles and
provide them with relevant and targeted benefits. For example, the help their
employee to improve on personal skills and achieve promotion. Employees tend to
be more motivated if they feel content within their work. Both Tesco and google
value the employees, and ensure that they are motivated and ensure they retain
talented staff to stay as a successful organisation. (The Times 100, 2010)

 

As with mayo’s theory, Adam’s equity theory is based on motivation through fairness within the workplace. Adam stated, ‘the higher an individual’s perception of equity the more motivated they will be’.  Google believe that treating staff is more important than making a lot of money. This relates to, Adam’s equity theory which google use. This theory states that employees are motivated when they recognize that they are being treated fairly. (Mind tool content team, 2016)

As equity and fairness are the key components of a motivated individual at Google all staff are treated equally, employees work independently and there is a lot of decentralised control. I think that this would be a good theory when it comes to motivation and retention of staff. Each employee has a voice and each idea projected is respected. The managers do not chase the employee nor do they force them to do work. The employees are able to choose what projects they want to work on and they can determine their own work schedule, this also enhances the idea of having equality. Resulting the employees to perceive that they are being treated fairly; which motivate them. The company believe that their biggest
resource is the employees. (WordPress, 2016)

As mentioned before Tesco
and Adam Equity theory relates to how they mayo theory, as they have a fair and
equal rewards system. At Tesco employees that complete 1 year of service are
awarded with financial shares of the business. This would motivate the staff at
Tesco as they would feel that there is equality between them and the
shareholders of the business. (Business case studies LLP, 2010)

To conclude, as you can see there are several factors to motive employees; stress, environmental factors, social factors, individual
differences. Each theory helps us understand how they affect businesses as different theorist have different aspects on how to motivate and retain talented staff. Talent retention happens when needs are met within an
organisation which looks back at Maslow’s Hierarchy of needs. The
managers at Google have certain guidelines that they follow e.g. empowering your team and don’t micro-manage, express interest within the employee success as well as well-being and lastly encourage employees with career development. Therefore, this has led to google to continue succeeding in motivating their employees and being ranked number one of the best employers. (Financial Times Limited, 2017)